National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

4101 LaPorte Avenue
Fort Collins, CO 80521
tel: (970) 266-6000 fax: (970) 266-6032

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.


Human–Carnivore Interactions: Lessons Learned from Communities in the American West, Julie K. Young, Zhao Ma, Ann Laudati, and Joel Berger

Evaluating Fladry Designs to Improve Utility as a Nonlethal Management Tool to Reduce Livestock Depredation, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth Miller, and Anna Essex


Impacts of Invasive Species on Ecosystem Energy Flow on the Big Island of Hawai'i: Excuse Me, But Are You Going to Eat That Cane Toad?, Erin F. Abernethy, Kelsey L. Turner, James C. Beasley, Travis L. DeVault, William C. Pitt, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Predicted Wildlife Disease-Related Climate Change Impacts of Specific Concern to USDA APHIS Wildlife Services, Timothy P. Algeo, Richard B. Chipman, Dennis Slate, Jerome E. Freier, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Sympatric prey responses to lethal top-predator control: predator manipulation experiments, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Does lethal control of top-predators release mesopredators? A re-evaluation of three Australian case studies, Benjamin L. Allen, Geoff Lundie-Jenkins, Neil D. Burrows, Richard M. Engeman, Peter J.S. Fleming, and Luke K.-P. Leung

The Short-Term Effects of a Routine Poisoning Campaign on the Movements and Detectability of a Social Top-Predator., B l. Allen, R. M. Engeman, and L. K-P. Leung

Economic Analysis of Indemnity Payments for Wolf Depredation on Cattle in a Wolf Reintroduction Area, Aaron M. Anderson, Karen Gebhardt, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, David L. Bergman, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Forecasting the spread of raccoon rabies using a purpose-specific group decision-making process., Aaron M. Anderson, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Richard B. Chipman, Todd C. Atwood, Tyler Cozzens, Frank Fillo, Robert Hale, Brody Hatch, Joanne Maki, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Erin E. Rees, Charles E. Rupprecht, Rowland Tinline, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and Dennis Slate

Economic Impact of the Potential Spread of Vampire Bats into South Texas, Aaron M. Anderson, Steven S. Shwiff, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Invasive Myna Control in American Samoa, Michael L. Avery and John D. Eisemann

Detection and Removal of Invasive Burmese Pythons: Methods Development Update, Michael L. Avery, John S. Humphrey, Kandy L. Keacher, and W. Eddie Bruce

Invasive black spiny-tailed iguanas (Ctenosaura similis) on Gasparilla Island, Florida, USA, Michael L. Avery, Eric A. Tillman, Conny Spurfeld, Richard M. Engeman, Kelin P. Maciejewski, Jessica D. Brown, and Emily A. Fetzer

Effectiveness of Rodenticides for Managing Invasive Roof Rats and Native Deer Mice in Orchards, Roger A. Baldwin, Niamh Quinn, David H. Davis, and Richard M. Engeman

Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens, John A. Baroch, Carl A. Gagnon, Sonia Lacouture, and Marcelo Gottschalk

Stochasticity in Natural Forage Production Affects Use of Urban Areas by Black Bears: Implications to Management of Human-Bear Conflicts, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Kenneth R. Wilson, David L. Lewis, John Broderick, Julie S. Mao, and Stewart W. Breck

Preference among 7 bait flavors delivered to domestic dogs in Arizona: Implications for oral rabies vaccination on the Navajo Nation, Are R. Berentsen, Scott C. Bender, David Bergman, Krista Hausig, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Evaluation of 6 ONRAB Ultralite bait flavor matrices delivered to coyotes (Canis latrans): Implications for oral rabies vaccination, Are R. Berentsen, Stacey P. Brummer, Julie K. Young, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Bait matrix flavor preference by mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) in Puerto Rico: Implications for Oral Rabies Vaccination, Are R. Berentsen, Shylo R. Johnson, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Characteristics of White-Tailed Deer Visits to Cattle Farms: Implications for Disease Transmission at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface, Are R. Berentsen, Ryan S. Miller, Jennifer L. Malmberg, and Mike R. Dunbar

Longevity of Rodenticide Bait Pellets in a Tropical Environment Following a Rat Eradication Program, Are R. Berentsen, William C. Pitt, John D. Eisemann, and Richard M. Engeman

One Health in Action: Reducing Feral Swine Damage and Disease, Sarah N. Bevins and Alan B. Franklin

Large-Scale Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds throughout the United States, Sarah N. Bevins, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, John A. Baroch, Brandon S. Schmit, Dennis Kohler, Thomas Gidlewski, Dale L. Nolte, Seth R. Swafford, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Consequences Associated with the Recent Range Expansion of Nonnative Feral Swine, Sarah N. Bevins, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, Thomas Gidlewski, and Thomas J. DeLiberto


Integrating mammalian hazards with management at U.S. civil airports: a case study., Kristin M. Biondi, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin, Travis L. DeVault, and Guiming Wang

White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger, Bradley F. Blackwelll, Thomas W. Seamans, and Travis L. DeVault

Report to the Chicago Park District on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2014 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, M. L. Bloomquist, J.W. Hartmann, T.G. Guerrant, S. F. Beckerman, and R. M. Engeman

The Influence of Study Species Selection on Estimates of Pesticide Exposure in Free-Ranging Birds, Shannon Borges, Nimish B. Vyas, and Mary Christman

West Nile Virus Isolated from a Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012, Angela Bosco-Lauth, Jessica R. Harmon, R. Ryan Jash, Sonja Weiss, Stanley Langevin, Harry M. Savage, Marvin S. Godsey Jr., Kristen Burkhalter, J. Jeffrey Root, Thomas Gidlewski, William L. Nicholson, Aaron C. Brault, and Nicholas Komar

New species records and changes in abundance of waterfowl in northwest Greenland, K. K. Burnham, D. R. Sinnett, J. A. Johnson, J. L. Burnham, and J. A. Baroch

Calving location selection patterns of saiga antelope in Mongolia, B. Buuveibaatar, T. K. Fuller, J. K. Young, and J. Berger

Population Dynamics of Double-Crested Cormorants in Two Interior Breeding Areas, Jennifer E. Chastant, D. Tommy King, D.V. Chip Weseloh, and David J. Moore

Disease Risks ·Posed by Wild Birds Associated with Agricultural Landscapes, Larry Clark

The Chemical Senses in Birds, Larry Clark, Julie Hagelin, and Scott J. Werner

Risk Factors Associated with Enteric Septicemia of Catfish on Mississippi Commercial Catfish Farms, Fred L. Cunningham, S. W. Jack, David Hardin, and Robert W. Wills

Incorporating Cold-Air Pooling into Downscaled Climate Models Increases Potential Refugia for Snow-Dependent Species within the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion, CA, Jennifer A. Curtis, Lorraine E. Flint, Alan L. Flint, Jessica D. Lundquist, Brian Hudgens, Erin E. Boydston, and Julie K. Young


Finding a Fox: An Evaluation of Survey Methods to Estimate Abundance of a Small Desert Carnivore, Steven J. Dempsey, Eric M. Gese, and Bryan M. Kluever

Review of Wildlife Damage Management: Prevention, Problem Solving and Conflict Resolution, Travis L. DeVault

Effects of Vehicle Speed on Flight Initiation by Turkey Vultures: Implications for Bird-Vehicle Collisions, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, and Esteban Fernandez-Juricic

Speed kills: ineffective avian escape responses to oncoming vehicles, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, and Esteban Fernandez-Juricic

Influence of egg oiling on colony presence of ring-billed gulls, Travis L. DeVault, Paige M. Schmidt, Fred E. Pogmore, John Gobeille, Jerrold L. Belant, and Thomas W. Seamans

Bird Use of Solar Photovoltaic Installations at US Airports: Implications for Aviation Safety, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, Jason A. Schmidt, Jerrold L. Belant, Bradley F. Blackwell, Nicole Mooers, Laura A. Tyson, and Lolita VanPelt

Geographic segregation and evidence of density-dependent changes in sex ratios in an abundant colonial waterbird, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Travis L. DeVault, Alban Guillaumet, and Scott C. Barras

Winter Space Use of Coyotes in High-Elevation Environments: Behavioral Adaptations to Deep-Snow Landscapes, Jennifer L.B. Dowd, Eric M. Gese, and Lise M. Aubry

Interactions Between Wildlife and Civil Aircraft in Mississippi, Kelsey M. Drey, James A. Martin, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and Bradley F. Blackwell

Effects of Vaccination against GDF9 and BMP15 on Fertility and Ovarian Function in the White-tailed Deer, Douglas C. Eckery, Lowell A. Miller, Gary J. Killian, and Anthony J. DeNicola

Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) Dispersal by European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), Ryan J. Edwards, Larry C. Clark, and K. George Beck

A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of Breath Analysis to Differentiate Healthy Cattle from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis, Christine K. Ellis, Randal S. Stahl, Pauline Nol, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Matthew McCollum, and M. D. Salman

Bat Rabies in Guatemala, James E. Ellison, Amy T. Gilbert, Sergio Recuenco, David Moran, Danilo A. Alvarez, Natalia Kuzmina, Daniel L. Garcia, Leonard F. Peruski, Mary T. Mendonca, Kim A. Lindblade, and Charles E. Rupprecht

Weighing empirical and hypothetical evidence for assessing potential invasive species range limits: a review of the case of Burmese pythons in the USA, Richard M. Engeman, Michael L. Avery, and Elliot Jacobson

Weighing empirical and hypothetical evidence for assessing potential invasive species range limits: a review of the case of Burmese pythons in the USA, Richard M. Engeman, Michael L. Avery, and Elliot Jacobson

Benefits to Rare Plants and Highway Safety from Annual Population Reductions of a “Native Invader,” White-Tailed Deer, in a Chicago-Area Woodland, Richard M. Engeman, Travis Guerrant, Glen Dunn, Scott F. Beckerman, and Chris Anchor

Impacts from Control Operations on a Recreationally Hunted Feral Swine Population at a Large Military Installation in Florida, Richard M. Engeman, Troy Hershberger, Steve Orzell, Rodney Felix, Gary Killian, John Woolard, Jon Cornman, David Romano, Chet Huddleston, Pat Zimmerman, Chris Barre, Eric A. Tillman, and Michael L. Avery

Anthropogenic Conditioning of Gray Jays to a Nutritious, Seasonal Aquatic Food Source, R. M. Engeman and C. J. Wiloth

Wildlife Damage Management: Changes over the Last 40 Years and a Look at the Future, Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Fine-scale, spatial and temporal assessment methods for feral swine disturbances to sensitive plant communities in south-central Florida, Rodney K. Felix Jr., Steve L. Orzell, Eric A. Tillman, Richard M. Engeman, and Michael L. Avery

Influenza A Subtype H3 Viruses in Feral Swine, United States, 2011–2012, Zhixin Feng, John A. Baroch, Li-Ping Long, Yifei Xu, Frederick L. Cunningham, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, Brandon S. Schmidt, Andrew S. Bowman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Optimization of Formulations for the Lethal Control of Feral Pigs, Justin A. Foster, James C. Martin, Kurt . C. VerCauteren, Greg E. Phillips, and John D. Eisemann

Does Habitat Heterogeneity in a Multi-Use Landscape Influence Survival Rates and Density of a Native Mesocarnivore?, Eric M. Gese and Craig M. Thompson

A Recent Epizootic of Skunk Rabies and Associated Spillover in Northern Colorado, USA, Amy Gilbert, Dennis Kohler, Tara Rigg, Justin W. Fischer, Terry Spraker, Karen Fox, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Determination of residue levels of alphachloralose in duck tissues, David A. Goldade, Randal S. Stahl, and John J. Johnston

Crossing the Interspecies Barrier: Opening the Door to Zoonotic Pathogens, Christian Gortazar, Leslie A. Reperant, Thijs Kuiken, Jose de la Fuente, Mariana Boadella, Beatriz Martinez-Lopez, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Agusitn Estrada-Pena, Christian Drosten, Graham Medley, Richard Ostfeld, Townsend Peterson, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Christian Menge, Marc Artois, Constance Schultsz, Richard Delahay, Jordi Sierra-Cobo, Robert Poulin, Frederic Keck, Alonso A. Aguirre, Heikki Henttonen, Andrew P. Dobson, Susan Kutz, Juan Lubroth, and Atle Mysterud

The Wake Island Rodent Eradication: Part Success, Part Failure, but Wholly Instructive, Richard Griffiths, Alex Wegmann, Chad Hanson, Brad Keitt, Gregg Howald, Derek Brown, Bernie Tershy, William Pitt, Matthew Moran, Kristen Rex, Susan White, Beth Flint, and Nick Torr

The Cumulative Effects of Management on the Population Dynamics of the Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus in the Great Lakes, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S. Dorr, Guiming Wang, and Terry J. Doyle

Genetic analysis of a Bison bison herd derived from the Yellowstone National Park population, Julia A. Herman, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Natalie D. Halbert, Jack C. Rhyan, and M. D. Salman

Surveillance of feral swine for Trichinella spp. and Toxoplasmagondii in the USA and host-related factors associatedwith infection, D. E. Hill, J. P. Dubey, J. A. Baroch, S. R. Swafford, V. F. Fournet, D. Hawkins-Cooper, D. G. Pyburn, B. S. Schmit, H. R. Gamble, K. Pedersen, L. R. Ferreira, S. K. Verma, Y. Ying, O. C. H. Kwok, H. Feidas, and G. Theodoropoulos

The socioecology of Monk Parakeets: Insights into parrot social complexity, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Michael L. Avery, and Timonthy F. Wright

Environmental Contaminant Concentrations in Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) Muscle: Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Human Consumers, Katherine E. Horak, Richard Chipman, Lisa Murphy, and John Johnston


Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage, 5th Edition, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Robert M. Timm, Paul D. Curtis, Dale L. Nolte, Mark E. Tobin, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Evaluating the Effect of Short-Term Capture and Handling on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolite Levels in Mourning Doves, D. S. Jachowski, T. W. Wong, B. E. Washburn, J. H. Schulz, and J. J. Millspaugh

Evaluation of Techniques to Reduce Deer and Elk Damage to Agricultural Crops, Heather E. Johnson, Justin W. Fischer, Matthew Hammond, Patricia D. Dorsey, W. David Walter, Charles Anderson, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Immunization Alters Body Odor, Bruce A. Kimball, Maryanne Opiekun, Kunio Yamazaki, and Gary K. Beauchamp

A Conceptual Model for the Impact of Climate Change on Fox Rabies in Alaska, 1980–2010, B. I. Kim, J. D. Blanton, A. T. Gilbert, L. Castrodale, K. Hueffer, D. Slate, and C. E. Rupprecht

Coqui frog populations are negatively affected by canopy opening but not detritus deposition following an experimental hurricane in a tropical rainforest, Paul D. Klawinski, Ben Dalton, and Aaron B. Shiels

Efficacy and Health Effects of a Wildlife Immunocontraceptive Vaccine on Fox Squirrels, Sara K. Krause, Douglas A. Kelt, James P. Gionfriddo, and Dirk H. Van Vuren

Regulation of tree squirrel populations with immunocontraception: a fox squirrel example, Sara K. Krause, Douglas A. Kelt, Dirk H. Van Vuren, and James P. Gionfriddo

Mineral licks: motivational factors for visitation and accompanying disease risk at communal use sites of elk and deer, Michael J. Lavelle, Gregory E. Phillips, Justin W. Fischer, Patrick W. Burke, Nathan W. Seward, Randal S. Stahl, Tracy A. Nichols, Bruce A. Wunder, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Evolution of Puma Lentivirus in Bobcats (Lynx rufus) and Mountain Lions (Puma concolor) in North America, Justin S. Lee, Sarah N. Bevins, Laurel E. K. Serleys, Winston Vickers, Ken A. Logan, Mat Aldredge, Erin E. Boydston, Lisa M. Lyren, Roy McBride, Melody Roelke-Parker, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Jennifer L. Troyer, Seth P. Riley, Walter M. Boyce, Kevin R. Crooks, and Sue VandeWoude

Modeling black bear population dynamics in a human-dominated stochastic environment, D. L. Lewis, S. W. Breck, K. R. Wilson, and C. T. Webb

Potential Use of Perennial Sunflower to Reduce Blackbird Damage to Sunflower, George M. Linz, Brent Hulke, Michael Kantar, Jeffrey Homan, Robert Stupar, and Donald Wyse


Effectiveness of Foliar Applications of 9,10-Anthraquinone for Reducing Blackbird Damage to Sunflower, George M. Linz, Scott J. Werner, Megan Niner, and Jeffrey Homan

The evolution of self-control, Evan L. MacLean, Brian Hare, Charles L. Nunn, Elsa Addessi, Federica Amici, Rindy C. Anderson, Filippo Aureli, Joseph M. Baker, Amanda E. Bania, Allison M. Barnard, Neeltje J. Boogert, Elizabeth M. Brannon, Emily E. Bray, Joel Bray, Lauren J. N. Brent, Judith M. Burkart, Josep Call, Jessica F. Cantlon, Lucy G. Cheke, Nicola S. Clayton, Mikel M. Delgado, Louis J. DiVindenti, Kazuo Fujita, Esther Herrmann, Chihiro Hiramatsu, Lucia F. Jacobs, Kerry E. Jordan, Jennifer R. Laude, Kristin L. Leimgruber, Emily J. E. Messer, Antonio C. de A. Moura, Ljerka Ostojic, Alejandra Picard, Michael L. Platt, Joshua M. Plotnik, Friederike Range, Simon M. Reader, Rachna B. Reddy, Aaron A. Sandel, Laurie R. Santos, Katrin Schumann, Amanda M. Seed, Kendra B. Sewall, Rachael C. Shaw, Katie E. Slocombre, Yanjie Su, Ayaka Takimoto, Jingzhi Tan, Ruoting Tao, Carel P. van Schaik, Zsofia Viranyi, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Jordan C. Wade, Arii Watanabe, Janes Widness, Julie K. Young, Thomas R. Zentall, and Yini Zhao

Memory-Based Quantity Discrimination in Coyotes (Canis latrans), Salif Mahamane, Kevin L. Grunig, Joseph Baker, Julie K. Young, and Kerry E. Jordan

THE SPRING MIGRATION OF ADULT NORTH AMERICAN OSPREYS, Mark S. Martell, Richard O. Bierregaard Jr., Brian E. Washburn, John E. Elliott, Charles J. Henry, Robert S. Kennedy, and Iain MacLeod

Novel Management Methods: Immunocontraception and Other Fertility Control Tools, Giovanna Massei, Dave Cowan, and Douglas C. Eckery

Mitochondrial Diversity Supports Multiple Origins for Invasive Pigs, Blake E. McCann, Mathew J. Malek, Robert A. Newman, Brandon S. Schmit, Seth R. Swafford, Richard A. Sweitzer, and Rebecca B. Simmons

Movement characteristics of American beavers (Castor canadensis), Lance F. McClintic, Guiming Wang, Jimmy D. Taylor II, and Jeanne C. Jones

Effects of spatiotemporal resource heterogeneity on home range size of American beaver, L. F. McClintic, J. D. Taylor II, J. C. Jones, R. D. Singleton, and G. Wang

Production of Hybrids Between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes, L. David Mech, Bruce W. Christensen, Cheryl S. Asa, Margaret Callahan, and Julie K. Young

Efficacy of Ropel® as a coyote repellent, Elizabeth A. Miller, Julie K. Young, Scott Stelting, and Bruce A. Kimball

First Reports of Pseudorabies and Winter Ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) Associated with an Emerging Feral Swine (Sus scrofa) Population in New Hampshire, Anthony R. Musante, Kerri Pedersen, and Parker Hall

Fitting outbreak models to data from many small norovirus outbreaks, Eamon B. O'Dea, Kim M. Pepin, Ben A. Lopman, and Claus O. Wilke

Morphologic and Molecular Identifications of Digenetic Trematodes in Double-Crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from the Mississippi Delta, USA, Mary O'Hear, Linda Pote, Marlena Yost, Cynthia Doffitt, D. Tommy King, and Carla Panuska

The Scent of Disease: Human Body Odor Contains an Early Chemosensory Cue of Sickness, Mats J. Olsson, Johan N. Lundstrom, Bruce A. Kimball, Amy R. Gordon, Bianka Karshikoff, Nishteman Hosseini, Kimmo Sorjonen, Caroline Olgart Hoglund, Carmen Solares, Anne Soop, John Axelsson, and Mats Lekander

Environmental Salmonella in Agricultural Fair Poultry Exhibits in Colorado, K. L. Pabilonia, K. J. Cadmus, T. M. Lingus, D. S. Bolte, M. M. Russell, D. C. Van Metre, and M. M. Erdman

Testing a molasses-based bait for oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) against Mycobacterium bovis, M. V. Palmer, M. R. Stafne, W. R. Waters, T. C. Thacker, and G. E. Phillips