National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

4101 LaPorte Avenue
Fort Collins, CO 80521
tel: (970) 266-6000 fax: (970) 266-6032

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


The Short-Term Effects of a Routine Poisoning Campaign on the Movements and Detectability of a Social Top-Predator., B l. Allen, R. M. Engeman, and L. K-P. Leung

Forecasting the spread of raccoon rabies using a purpose-specific group decision-making process., Aaron M. Anderson, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Richard B. Chipman, Todd C. Atwood, Tyler Cozzens, Frank Fillo, Robert Hale, Brody Hatch, Joanne Maki, Olin E. Rhodes, Erin E. Rees, Charles E. Rupprecht, Rowland Tinline, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and Dennis Slate

Effectiveness of Rodenticides for Managing Invasive Roof Rats and Native Deer Mice in Orchards, Roger A. Baldwin, Niamh Quinn, David H. Davis, and Richard M. Engeman

Stochasticity in Natural Forage Production Affects Use of Urban Areas by Black Bears: Implications to Management of Human-Bear Conflicts, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Kenneth R. Wilson, David L. Lewis, John Broderick, Julie S. Mao, and Stewart W. Breck

Preference among 7 bait flavors delivered to domestic dogs in Arizona: Implications for oral rabies vaccination on the Navajo Nation, Are R. Berentsen, Scott C. Bender, David Bergman, Krista Hausig, and Kurt Vercauteren

Characteristics of White-Tailed Deer Visits to Cattle Farms: Implications for Disease Transmission at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface, Are R. Berentsen, Ryan S. Miller, Jennifer L. Malmberg, and Mike R. Dunbar

Longevity of Rodenticide Bait Pellets in a Tropical Environment Following a Rat Eradication Program, Are R. Berentsen, William C. Pitt, John D. Eisemann, and Richard M. Engeman

Consequences Associated with the Recent Range Expansion of Nonnative Feral Swine, Sarah N. Bevins, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, Thomas Gidlewski, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Integrating mammalian hazards with management at U.S. civil airports: a case study., Kristin M. Biondi, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin, Travis L. DeVault, and Guiming Wang

The Influence of Study Species Selection on Estimates of Pesticide Exposure in Free-Ranging Birds, Shannon Borges, Nimish B. Vyas, and Mary Christman

New species records and changes in abundance of waterfowl in northwest Greenland, K. K. Burnham, D. R. Sinnett, J. A. Johnson, J. L. Burnham, and J. A. Baroch

Population Dynamics of Double-Crested Cormorants in Two Interior Breeding Areas, Jennifer E. Chastant, D. Tommy King, D.V. Chip Weseloh, and David J. Moore

Effects of Vehicle Speed on Flight Initiation by Turkey Vultures: Implications for Bird-Vehicle Collisions, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, and Esteban Fernandez-Juricic

Bird Use of Solar Photovoltaic Installations at US Airports: Implications for Aviation Safety, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, Jason A. Schmidt, Jerrold L. Belant, Bradley F. Blackwell, Nicole Mooers, Laura A. Tyson, and Lolita VanPelt

Winter Space Use of Coyotes in High-Elevation Environments: Behavioral Adaptations to Deep-Snow Landscapes, Jennifer L.B. Dowd, Eric M. Gese, and Lise M. Aubry

Interactions Between Wildlife and Civil Aircraft in Mississippi, Kelsey M. Drey, James A. Martin, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and Bradley F. Blackwell

A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of Breath Analysis to Differentiate Healthy Cattle from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis, Christine K. Ellis, Randal S. Stahl, Pauline Nol, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Matthew McCollum, and M. D. Salman

Benefits to Rare Plants and Highway Safety from Annual Population Reductions of a “Native Invader,” White-Tailed Deer, in a Chicago-Area Woodland, Richard Engeman, Travis Guerrant, Glen Dunn, Scott F. Beckerman, and Chris Anchor

Impacts from Control Operations on a Recreationally Hunted Feral Swine Population at a Large Military Installation in Florida, Richard Engeman, Troy Hershberger, Steve Orzell, Rodney Felix, Gary Killian, John Woolard, Jon Cornman, David Romano, Chet Huddleston, Pat Zimmerman, Chris Barre, Eric Tillman, and Michael Avery

Influenza A Subtype H3 Viruses in Feral Swine, United States, 2011–2012, Zhixin Feng, John A. Baroch, Li-Ping Long, Yifei Xu, Frederick L. Cunningham, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, Brandon S. Schmidt, Andrew S. Bowman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

The Cumulative Effects of Management on the Population Dynamics of the Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus in the Great Lakes, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S. Dorr, Guiming Wang, and Terry J. Doyle

Immunization Alters Body Odor, Bruce A. Kimball, Maryanne Opiekun, Kunio Yamazaki, and Gary K. Beauchamp

A Conceptual Model for the Impact of Climate Change on Fox Rabies in Alaska, 1980–2010, B. I. Kim, J. D. Blanton, A. Gilbert, L. Castrodale, K. Hueffer, D. Slate, and C. E. Rupprecht

Efficacy and Health Effects of a Wildlife Immunocontraceptive Vaccine on Fox Squirrels, Sara K. Krause, Douglas A. Kelt, James P. Gionfriddo, and Dirk H. Van Vuren

Mitochondrial Diversity Supports Multiple Origins for Invasive Pigs, Blake E. McCann, Mathew J. Malek, Robert A. Newman, Brandon S. Schmit, Seth R. Swafford, Richard A. Sweitzer, and Rebecca B. Simmons

Production of Hybrids Between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes, L. David Mech, Bruce W. Christensen, Cheryl S. Asa, Margaret Callahan, and Julie K. Young

First Reports of Pseudorabies and Winter Ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) Associated with an Emerging Feral Swine (Sus scrofa) Population in New Hampshire, Anthony R. Musante, Kerri Pedersen, and Parker Hall

Morphologic and Molecular Identifications of Digenetic Trematodes in Double-Crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from the Mississippi Delta, USA, Mary O'Hear, Linda Pote, Marlena Yost, Cynthia Doffitt, Tommy King, and Carla Panuska

The Scent of Disease: Human Body Odor Contains an Early Chemosensory Cue of Sickness, Mats J. Olsson, Johan N. Lundstrom, Bruce A. Kimball, Amy R. Gordon, Bianka Karshikoff, Nishteman Hosseini, Kimmo Sorjonen, Caroline Olgart Hoglund, Carmen Solares, Anne Soop, John Axelsson, and Mats Lekander

Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype 1 (Newcastle Disease Virus), Avian Influenza Virus, and Salmonella spp. in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes Region and Atlantic Coast of the United States, Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Dustin M. Arsnoe, Claudio L. Afonso, Sarah N. Bevins, Patti J. Miller, Adam R. Randall, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Identification of Brucella suis from Feral Swine in Selected States in the USA, Kerri Pedersen, Christine R. Quance, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Antionette J. Piaggio, Sarah N. Bevins, Samuel M. Goldstein, Wesson D. Gaston, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Using Quantitative Disease Dynamics as a Tool for Guiding Response to Avian Influenza in Poultry in the United States of America, K. M. Pepin, E. Spackman, J. D. Brown, K. L. Pabilonia, L. P. Garber, J. T. Weaver, D. A. Kennedy, K. A. Patyk, K. P. Huyvaert, R. S. Miller, A. B. Franklin, K. Pedersen, T. L. Bogich, P. Rohani, S. A. Shriner, C. T. Webb, and S. Riley

Detecting an Elusive Invasive Species: A Diagnostic PCR to Detect Burmese Python in Florida Waters and an Assessment of Persistence of Environmental DNA, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Richard M. Engeman, Matthew W. Hopken, John S. Humphrey, Kandy L. Keacher, William E. Bruce, and Michael L. Avery

Potential Citric Acid Exposure and Toxicity to Hawaiian Hoary Bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) Associated with Eleutherodactylus Frog Control, William C. Pitt, Gary W. Witmer, Susan M. Jojola, and Hans Sin

Toxicokinetics and Coagulopathy Threshold of the Rodenticide Diphacinone in Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio), Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Rebecca S. Lazarus, David A. Goldade, and John J. Johnston

Extended Viral Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus by Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis), J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Kevin T. Bentler, Thomas Gidlewski, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, Terry R. Spraker, Kaci K. VanDalen, Heather J. Sullivan, and Alan B. Franklin

Understanding the key mechanisms of tropical forest responses to canopy loss and biomass deposition from experimental hurricane effects, Aaron B. Shiels and Grizelle Gonzalez

Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 11. Rattus rattus, the Black Rat (Rodentia: Muridae), Aaron B. Shiels, William C. Pitt, Robert T. Sugihara, and Gary W. Witmer

Animal Attendance at M-44 Sodium Cyanide Ejector Sites for Coyotes, John A. Shivik, Lauren Mastro, and Julie K. Young

The Evolution of Flow Devices Used to Reduce Flooding by Beavers: A Review, Jimmy D. Taylor and Russell D. Singleton

Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis, W. David Walter, Rick Smith, Mike Vanderklok, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Wildlife Strikes With Military Rotary-Wing Aircraft During Flight Operations Within the United States, Brian E. Washburn, Paul J. Cisar, and Travis L. DeVault

Functional Significance of Ultraviolet Feeding Cues in Wild Turkeys, Scott J. Werner, Richard Buchholz, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. Pettit, and Jeremy W. Ellis

Application Strategies for an Anthraquinone-Based Repellent to Protect Oilseed Sunflower Crops from Pest Blackbirds, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. Pettit, Jeremy W. Ellis, James C. Carlson, David A. Goldade, Nicholas M. Hofmann, H. Jeffrey Homan, and George M. Linz

New Rodenticides: An Update on Recent Research Trials, Gary Witmer, Katherine Horak, and Rachel Moulton

Evaluating Habitat Manipulations and Rodenticides to Protect Seedlings from Rodent Damage at Restored Landfills in New York, Gary W. Witmer


As clear as mud: A critical review of evidence for the ecological roles of Australian dingoes, Benjamin L. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

As clear as mud: A critical review of evidence for the ecological roles of Australian dingoes, Benjamin L.R. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Frequent Cross-Species Transmission of Parvoviruses among Diverse Carnivore Hosts, Andrew B. Allison, Dennis J. Kohler, Karen A. Fox, Justin D. Brown, Richard W. Gerhold, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler, Edward J. Dubovi, Colin R. Parrish, and Edward C. Holmes

Bird damage to select fruit crops: The cost of damage and the benefits of control in five states, Aaron M. Anderson, C.A. Lindell, Karen M. Moxcey, W.F. Siemer, George M. Linz, P.D. Curtis, J.E. Carroll, C.L. Burrows, Jason R. Boulanger, K.M.M. Steensma, and Stpehanie A. Shwiff

The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents, A. Anderson and S. A. Shwiff

The influence of trap type and cover status on capture rates of pocket gophers in California, Roger A. Baldwin, Daniel B. Marcum, Steve B. Orloff, Stephen J. Vasquez, Cheryl A. Wilen, and Richard Engeman

Effectiveness of cattle operated bump gates and exclusion fences in preventing ungulate multi-host sanitary interaction, J.A. Barasona, K.C. VerCauteren, N. Saklou, C. Gortazar, and J. Vicente

Use of patch selection models as a decision support tool to evaluate mitigation strategies of human–wildlife conflict, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Colleen T. Webb, Stewart W. Breck, and Kenneth R. Wilson

A framework for managing airport grasslands and birds amidst conflicting priorities, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Paige M. Schmidt, Travis L. Devault, Jerrold L. Belant, Mark J. Whittingham, James A. Martin, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Factors affecting survival and cause-specific mortality of saiga calves in Mongolia, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Julie K. Young, Joel Berger, Amanda E. Fine, Badamjav Lkhagvasuren, Peter Zahler, and Todd K. Fuller

Changes in grouping patterns of saiga antelope in relation to intrinsic and environmental factors in Mongolia, B. Buuveibaatar, T. K. Fuller, A. E. Fine, B. Chimeddorj, J. K. Young, and J. Berger

Wildlife Contact Rates at Artificial Feeding Sites in Texas, Tyler Campbell, David Long, and Susan Shriner

Laboratory efficacy of an anthraquinone-based repellent for reducing bird damage to ripening corn, James C. Carlson, Shelagh K. Tupper, Scott J. Werner, Susan E. Pettit, Michele M. Santer, and George M. Linz

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8, Barbara S. Drolet, Lindsey M. Reister, Tara D. Rigg, Pauline Nol, Brendan K. Podell, James O. Mecham, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Piet A. van Rijn, William C. Wilson, and Richard Bowen

Multidisciplinary Approach to Epizootiology and Pathogenesis of Bat Rabies Viruses in the United States, J. A. Ellison, S. R. Johnson, N. Kuzmina, A. Gilbert, W. C. Carson, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and C. E. Rupprecht

Assessing spatial variation and overall density of aerially broadcast toxic bait during a rat eradication on Palmyra Atoll, Richard Engeman, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, and John D. Eisemann

Use of stormwater impoundments near airports by birds recognizedas hazardous to aviation safety, Brian J. Fox, Wesley B. Holland, Frank L. Boyd, Bradley F. Blackwell, and James B. Armstrong

The safety of ONRAB® in select non-target wildlife, Tricia L. Fry, Kaci Van Dalen, Colleen Duncan, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Humoral immune response to oral rabies vaccination in raccoon kits: Problems and implications, Tricia L. Fry, Kaci Van Dalen, Susan A. Shriner, Susan M. Moore, Cathleen A. Hanlon, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Deciphering Serology to Understand the Ecology of Infectious Diseases in Wildlife, Amy Gilbert, A. R. Fooks, D. T. Hayman, D. L. Horton, T. Muller, R. Plowright, A. J. Peel, R. Bowen, J. L. Wood, J. Miils, A. A. Cunningham, and C. E. Rupprecht

The Effect of Social Hierarchy on Captive Coyote (Canis latrans) Foraging Behavior, Lynne B. Gilbert-Norton, Ryan R. Wilson, and John A. Shivik

Report to the City of Chicago on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2012 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, J.W. Hartmann, S.F. Beckerman, Richard M. Engeman, and T.W. Seamans

An analytical framework for quantifying and testing patterns of temporal dynamics in social networks, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Michael L. Avery, and Timothy F. Wright

Use of dairies by postreproductive flocks of European starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, D. L. Pearl, T. W. Seamans, Thomas W. Seamans, A.A. Slowik, Mark R. Morasch, and George M. Linz

Comparison of two models for estimating mortality from baitings with Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate avicide, H. Jeffrey Homan, Randal S. Stahl, and George M. Linz

Use of dairies by postreproductive flocks of European starlings, H. J. Homan, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, David L. Pearl, T. W. Seamans, A. A. Slowik, Mark R. Morasch, and G. M. Linz

Comparison of two models for estimating mortality from baitings with Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate avicide, Jeffrey H. Homan, Randal S. Stahl, and George M. Linz

Stream hierarchy defines riverscape genetics of a North American desert fish, Matthew W. Hopken, Marlis R. Douglas, and Michael E. Douglas

Comparisons between blackbird damage to corn and sunflower in North Dakota, Megan E. Klosterman, George M. Linz, Anthony Slowik, and H. Jeffrey Homan

Assessing wolves and cougars as conservation surrogates, Kyran E. Kunkel, T. C. Atwood, T. K. Ruth, Daniel H. Pletscher, and M. G. Hornocker

Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where?, Travis Longcore, Catherine Rich, Pierre Mineau, Beau MacDonald, Daniel G. Bert, Lauren M. Sullivan, Erin Mutrie, Sidney A. Gauthreaux Jr., Michael L. Avery, Robert L. Crawford, Albert M. Manville II, Emilie R. Travis, and David Drake

Nonsurgical fertility control for managing free-roaming dog populations: A review of products and criteria for field applications, Giovanna Massei and Lowell A. Miller

The use of DiazaCon™ to limit fertility by reducing serum cholesterol in female grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, Brenda A. Mayle, Mark Ferryman, Andrew Peace, Christi A. Yoder, Lowell A. Miller, and David Cowan

Use of a GnRH vaccine, GonaConTM, for prevention and treatment ofadrenocortical disease (ACD) in domestic ferrets, Lowell A. Miller, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, Robert A. Wagner, and Mark Finkler

Detecting an elusive invasive species: a diagnostic PCR to detect Burmese python in Florida waters and an assessment of persistence of environmental DNA, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Richard Engeman, Matthew W. Hopken, John S. Humphrey, Kandy L. Keacher, William E. Bruce, and Michael L. Avery

Patterns of Human–Coyote Conflicts in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Sharon A. Poessel, Stewart W. Breck, Tara L. Teel, Stephanie Shwiff, Kevin R. Crooks, and Lisa Angeloni

West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis, J. Jeffrey Root

Potential economic benefits of eliminating canine rabies, Stephanie Shwiff, Katie Hampson, and Aaron Anderson

Optimizing line intercept sampling and estimation for feral swine damage levels in ecologically sensitive wetland plant communities, Jacob F. Thomas, Richard M. Engeman, Eric Tillman, Justin W. Fischer, Steve L. Orzell, Deborah H. Glueck, Rodney K. Felix, and Michael L. Avery

Influence of vegetation structure on the small mammal community in a shortgrass prairie ecosystem, Craig M. Thompson and Eric M. Gese

Concomitant administration of GonaConTMand rabies vaccine infemale dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mexico, Fernando Vargas-Pino, Verónica Gutiérrez-Cedillo, Erick J. Canales-Vargas, Luis R. Gress-Ortega, Lowell A. Miller, C. E. Rupprecht, Scott C. Bender, Patricia García-Reyna, Juan Ocampo-López, and Dennis Slate

Changes in abiotic influences on seed plants and ferns during 18 years of primary succession on Puerto Rican landslides, Lawrence R. Walker, Aaron B. Shiels, Peter J. Bellingham, Ashley D. Sparrow, Ned Fetcher, Fred H. Landau, and Deborah J. Lodge

Evolutionary Characterization of the Pandemic H1N1/ 2009 Influenza Virus in Humans Based on Non-Structural Genes, Chengmin Wang, Yanyu Zhang, Bin Wu, Shelan Liu, Ping Xu, Yanmin Lu, Jing Luo, Dale Louis Nolte, Thomas Jude Deliberto, Mingxing Duan, Hong Zhang, and Hongxuan He

Wildlife strikes to civil helicopters in the US, 1990–2011, Brian E. Washburn, Paul Cisar, and Travis L. DeVault

Functional significance of ultraviolet feeding cues in wild turkeys, Scott J. Werner, Richard Buchholz, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. T. Pettit, and Jeremy W. Ellis

Evaluating Habitat Manipulations and Rodenticides to Protect Seedlings from Rodent Damage at Restored Landfills in New York, Gary Witmer

Mutation from arginine to lysine at the position 189 of hemagglutinin contributes to the antigenic drift in H3N2 swine influenza viruses, Jianqiang Ye, Yifei Xu, Jillian Harris, Hailiang Sun, Andrew S. Bowman, Fred Cunningham, Carol Cardona, Kyoungjin J. Yoon, Richard D. Slemons, and Xiu-Feng Wan


Chapter 4: Top-Predators as Biodiversity Regulators: Contemporary Issues Affecting Knowledge and Management of Dingoes in Australia, Benjamin L.R. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Matt Hayward, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Frequent Cross-Species Transmission of Parvoviruses among Diverse Carnivore Hosts, Andrew B. Allison, Dennis J. Kohler, Karen A. Fox, Justin D. Brown, Richard W. Gerhold, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler, Edward J. Dubovi, Colin R. Parrish, and Edward C. Holmes

Economic Evaluation of Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus) Rabies Prevention in Mexico, Aaron M. Anderson, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karen Gebhardt, A. J. Ramırez, Steven Shwiff, Dennis Kohler, and Luis Lecuona

Crow Pellets from Winter Roosts in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Mary Annala, Eric A. Tillman, Gregory A. Backus, Kandy L. Keacher, and Michael L. Avery

Biology of Invasive Monk Parakeets in South Florida, Michael L. Avery, Eric A. Tillman, Kandy L. Keacher, John E. Arnett, and Kelli J. Lundy

Eleutherodactylus coqui Thomas (Caribbean tree frog), Karen H. Beard and William C. Pitt

A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Raccoon Abundance: Implications for Disease Vaccination Programs, James C. Beasley, William S. Beatty, Todd C. Atwood, Shylo R. Johnson, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.