National Wildlife Research Center

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


As clear as mud: A critical review of evidence for the ecological roles of Australian dingoes, Benjamin L. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

As clear as mud: A critical review of evidence for the ecological roles of Australian dingoes, Benjamin L.R. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Frequent Cross-Species Transmission of Parvoviruses among Diverse Carnivore Hosts, Andrew B. Allison, Dennis J. Kohler, Karen A. Fox, Justin D. Brown, Richard W. Gerhold, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler, Edward J. Dubovi, Colin R. Parrish, and Edward C. Holmes

Bird damage to select fruit crops: The cost of damage and the benefits of control in five states, Aaron M. Anderson, C.A. Lindell, Karen M. Moxcey, W.F. Siemer, George M. Linz, P.D. Curtis, J.E. Carroll, C.L. Burrows, Jason R. Boulanger, K.M.M. Steensma, and Stpehanie A. Shwiff

The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents, A. Anderson and S. A. Shwiff

The influence of trap type and cover status on capture rates of pocket gophers in California, Roger A. Baldwin, Daniel B. Marcum, Steve B. Orloff, Stephen J. Vasquez, Cheryl A. Wilen, and Richard Engeman

Effectiveness of cattle operated bump gates and exclusion fences in preventing ungulate multi-host sanitary interaction, J.A. Barasona, K.C. VerCauteren, N. Saklou, C. Gortazar, and J. Vicente

Use of patch selection models as a decision support tool to evaluate mitigation strategies of human–wildlife conflict, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Colleen T. Webb, Stewart W. Breck, and Kenneth R. Wilson

A framework for managing airport grasslands and birds amidst conflicting priorities, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Paige M. Schmidt, Travis L. Devault, Jerrold L. Belant, Mark J. Whittingham, James A. Martin, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Factors affecting survival and cause-specific mortality of saiga calves in Mongolia, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Julie K. Young, Joel Berger, Amanda E. Fine, Badamjav Lkhagvasuren, Peter Zahler, and Todd K. Fuller

Changes in grouping patterns of saiga antelope in relation to intrinsic and environmental factors in Mongolia, B. Buuveibaatar, T. K. Fuller, A. E. Fine, B. Chimeddorj, J. K. Young, and J. Berger

Laboratory efficacy of an anthraquinone-based repellent for reducing bird damage to ripening corn, James C. Carlson, Shelagh K. Tupper, Scott J. Werner, Susan E. Pettit, Michele M. Santer, and George M. Linz

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8, Barbara S. Drolet, Lindsey M. Reister, Tara D. Rigg, Pauline Nol, Brendan K. Podell, James O. Mecham, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Piet A. van Rijn, William C. Wilson, and Richard Bowen

Multidisciplinary Approach to Epizootiology and Pathogenesis of Bat Rabies Viruses in the United States, J. A. Ellison, S. R. Johnson, N. Kuzmina, A. Gilbert, W. C. Carson, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and C. E. Rupprecht

Assessing spatial variation and overall density of aerially broadcast toxic bait during a rat eradication on Palmyra Atoll, Richard Engeman, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, and John D. Eisemann

Use of stormwater impoundments near airports by birds recognizedas hazardous to aviation safety, Brian J. Fox, Wesley B. Holland, Frank L. Boyd, Bradley F. Blackwell, and James B. Armstrong

The safety of ONRAB® in select non-target wildlife, Tricia L. Fry, Kaci Van Dalen, Colleen Duncan, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Humoral immune response to oral rabies vaccination in raccoon kits: Problems and implications, Tricia L. Fry, Kaci Van Dalen, Susan A. Shriner, Susan M. Moore, Cathleen A. Hanlon, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

The Effect of Social Hierarchy on Captive Coyote (Canis latrans) Foraging Behavior, Lynne B. Gilbert-Norton, Ryan R. Wilson, and John A. Shivik

Report to the City of Chicago on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2012 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, J.W. Hartmann, S.F. Beckerman, Richard M. Engeman, and T.W. Seamans

An analytical framework for quantifying and testing patterns of temporal dynamics in social networks, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Michael L. Avery, and Timothy F. Wright

Use of dairies by postreproductive flocks of European starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, D. L. Pearl, T. W. Seamans, Thomas W. Seamans, A.A. Slowik, Mark R. Morasch, and George M. Linz

Comparison of two models for estimating mortality from baitings with Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate avicide, H. Jeffrey Homan, Randal S. Stahl, and George M. Linz

Use of dairies by postreproductive flocks of European starlings, H. J. Homan, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, David L. Pearl, T. W. Seamans, A. A. Slowik, Mark R. Morasch, and G. M. Linz

Comparison of two models for estimating mortality from baitings with Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate avicide, Jeffrey H. Homan, Randal S. Stahl, and George M. Linz

Stream hierarchy defines riverscape genetics of a North American desert fish, Matthew W. Hopken, Marlis R. Douglas, and Michael E. Douglas

Comparisons between blackbird damage to corn and sunflower in North Dakota, Megan E. Klosterman, George M. Linz, Anthony Slowik, and H. Jeffrey Homan

Assessing wolves and cougars as conservation surrogates, Kyran E. Kunkel, T. C. Atwood, T. K. Ruth, Daniel H. Pletscher, and M. G. Hornocker

Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where?, Travis Longcore, Catherine Rich, Pierre Mineau, Beau MacDonald, Daniel G. Bert, Lauren M. Sullivan, Erin Mutrie, Sidney A. Gauthreaux Jr., Michael L. Avery, Robert L. Crawford, Albert M. Manville II, Emilie R. Travis, and David Drake

Nonsurgical fertility control for managing free-roaming dog populations: A review of products and criteria for field applications, Giovanna Massei and Lowell A. Miller

The use of DiazaCon™ to limit fertility by reducing serum cholesterol in female grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, Brenda A. Mayle, Mark Ferryman, Andrew Peace, Christi A. Yoder, Lowell A. Miller, and David Cowan

Use of a GnRH vaccine, GonaConTM, for prevention and treatment ofadrenocortical disease (ACD) in domestic ferrets, Lowell A. Miller, Kathleen A. Fagerstone, Robert A. Wagner, and Mark Finkler

Detecting an elusive invasive species: a diagnostic PCR to detect Burmese python in Florida waters and an assessment of persistence of environmental DNA, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Richard Engeman, Matthew W. Hopken, John S. Humphrey, Kandy L. Keacher, William E. Bruce, and Michael L. Avery

Patterns of Human–Coyote Conflicts in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Sharon A. Poessel, Stewart W. Breck, Tara L. Teel, Stephanie Shwiff, Kevin R. Crooks, and Lisa Angeloni

West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis, J. Jeffrey Root

Potential economic benefitsofeliminating canine rabies, Stephanie Shwiff, Katie Hampson, and Aaron Anderson

Optimizing line intercept sampling and estimation for feral swine damage levels in ecologically sensitive wetland plant communities, Jacob F. Thomas, Richard M. Engeman, Eric Tillman, Justin W. Fischer, Steve L. Orzell, Deborah H. Glueck, Rodney K. Felix, and Michael L. Avery

Influence of vegetation structure on the small mammal community in a shortgrass prairie ecosystem, Craig M. Thompson and Eric M. Gese

Concomitant administration of GonaConTMand rabies vaccine infemale dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mexico, Fernando Vargas-Pino, Verónica Gutiérrez-Cedillo, Erick J. Canales-Vargas, Luis R. Gress-Ortega, Lowell A. Miller, C. E. Rupprecht, Scott C. Bender, Patricia García-Reyna, Juan Ocampo-López, and Dennis Slate

Changes in abiotic influences on seed plants and ferns during 18 years of primary succession on Puerto Rican landslides, Lawrence R. Walker, Aaron B. Shiels, Peter J. Bellingham, Ashley D. Sparrow, Ned Fetcher, Fred H. Landau, and Deborah J. Lodge

Evolutionary Characterization of the Pandemic H1N1/ 2009 Influenza Virus in Humans Based on Non-Structural Genes, Chengmin Wang, Yanyu Zhang, Bin Wu, Shelan Liu, Ping Xu, Yanmin Lu, Jing Luo, Dale Louis Nolte, Thomas Jude Deliberto, Mingxing Duan, Hong Zhang, and Hongxuan He

Wildlife strikes to civil helicopters in the US, 1990–2011, Brian E. Washburn, Paul Cisar, and Travis L. DeVault

Functional significance of ultraviolet feeding cues in wild turkeys, Scott J. Werner, Richard Buchholz, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. T. Pettit, and Jeremy W. Ellis

Evaluating Habitat Manipulations and Rodenticides to Protect Seedlings from Rodent Damage at Restored Landfills in New York, Gary Witmer

Mutation from arginine to lysine at the position 189 of hemagglutinin contributes to the antigenic drift in H3N2 swine influenza viruses, Jianqiang Ye, Yifei Xu, Jillian Harris, Hailiang Sun, Andrew S. Bowman, Fred Cunningham, Carol Cardona, Kyoungjin J. Yoon, Richard D. Slemons, and Xiu-Feng Wan


Chapter 4: Top-Predators as Biodiversity Regulators: Contemporary Issues Affecting Knowledge and Management of Dingoes in Australia, Benjamin L.R. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Matt Hayward, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Frequent Cross-Species Transmission of Parvoviruses among Diverse Carnivore Hosts, Andrew B. Allison, Dennis J. Kohler, Karen A. Fox, Justin D. Brown, Richard W. Gerhold, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler, Edward J. Dubovi, Colin R. Parrish, and Edward C. Holmes

Economic Evaluation of Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus) Rabies Prevention in Mexico, Aaron M. Anderson, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Karen Gebhardt, A. J. Ramırez, Steven Shwiff, Dennis Kohler, and Luis Lecuona

Crow Pellets from Winter Roosts in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Mary Annala, Eric A. Tillman, Gregory A. Backus, Kandy L. Keacher, and Michael L. Avery

Biology of Invasive Monk Parakeets in South Florida, Michael L. Avery, Eric A. Tillman, Kandy L. Keacher, John E. Arnett, and Kelli J. Lundy

Eleutherodactylus coqui Thomas (Caribbean tree frog), Karen H. Beard and William C. Pitt

A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Raccoon Abundance: Implications for Disease Vaccination Programs, James C. Beasley, William S. Beatty, Todd C. Atwood, Shylo R. Johnson, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Carrion cycling in food webs: comparisons among terrestrial and marine ecosystems, James C. Beasley, Z. H. Olson, and T. L. DeVault

Genetic structure of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population inhabiting a fragmented agricultural ecosystem, William S. Beatty, James C. Beasley, Guha Dharmarajan, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

A Novel Isoflurane Anesthesia Induction System for Raccoons, Kevin T. Bentler, Daniel N. Gossett, and J. Jeffrey Root

Survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection in African lion (Panthera leo), African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, Are R. Berentsen, Matthew S. Becker, Heather Stockdale-Walden, Wigganson Matandiko, Rachel McRobb, and Mike R. Dunbar

Influence of Forest Structure on the Abundance of Snowshoe Hares in Western Wyoming, Nathan D. Berg, Eric M. Gese, John Squires, and Lise M. Aubry

Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010, Thomas E. Besser, Margaret A. Highland, Katherine Baker, E. Frances Cassirer, Neil J. Anderson, Jennifer M. Ramsey, Kristin Mansfield, Darren L. Bruning, Peregrine Wolff, Joshua B. Smith, and Jonathan A. Jenks

Yersinia pestis: examining wildlife plague surveillance in China and the USA, Sarah N. Bevins, John A. Baroch, Dale L. Nolte, Min Zhang, and Hongxuan He

Three Pathogens in Sympatric Populations of Pumas, Bobcats, and Domestic Cats: Implications for Infectious Disease Transmission, Sarah N. Bevins, Scott Carver, Erin E. Boydston, Lisa M. Lyren, Mat Alldredge, Kenneth A. Logan, Seth P. D. Riley, Robert N. Fisher, T. Winston Vickers, Walter Boyce, Mo Salman, Michael R. Lappin, Kevin R. Crooks, and Sue VandeWoude

Digging Behaviors Of Radio-Tagged Black-Footed Ferrets Near Meeteetse, Wyoming, 1981–1984, Dean E. Biggins, Louis R. Hanebury, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Exploiting Antipredator Behavior in White-Tailed Deer for Resource Protection, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Laura A. Tyson, Jerrold L. Belant, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Exploiting avian vision with aircraft lighting to reduce bird strikes, Bradley F. Blackwelll, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, Patrice Baumhardt, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

A Perspective on Livestock–Wolf Interactions on Western Rangelands, Stewart Breck, Patrick Clark, Larry Howery, Douglas Johnson, Bryan Kluever, Samuel Smallidge, and Andres Cibils

Site-Occupancy Monitoring Of An Ecosystem Indicator: Linking Characteristics Of Riparian Vegetation To Beaver Occurrence, Stewart W. Breck, Michael I. Goldstein, and Sanjay Pyare

Dissecting a wildlife disease hotspot: the impact of multiple host species, environmental transmission and seasonality in migration, breeding and mortality, Vicki L. Brown, John M. Drake, David E. Stallknecht, Justin D. Brown, Kerri Pedersen, and Pejman Rohani

Impact of baiting on feral swine behavior in the presence of culling activities, Tyler A. Campbell, David B. Long, Michael J. Lavelle, Bruce R. Leland, Terry L. Blankenship, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

The effect of European starlings and ambient air temperature on Salmonella enterica contamination within cattle feed bunks, James C. Carlson, Jeremy W. Ellis, Shelagh K. Tupper, Alan B. Franklin, and George M. Linz

Zoonotic Parasites of Bobcats around Human Landscapes, Scott Carver, Andrea V. Scorza, Sarah N. Bevins, Seth P. D. Riley, Kevin R. Crooks, Sue VandeWoude, and Michael R. Lappin

Association of Wild Bird Density and Farm Management Factors with the Prevalence of E. coli O157 in Dairy Herds in Ohio (2007–2009), N. Cernicchiaro, D. L. Pearl, S. A. McEwen, L. Harpster, H. J. Homan, G. M. Linz, and J. T. LeJeune

Efficacy of aerial broadcast baiting in reducing brown treesnake numbers, Larry Clark and Peter J. Savarie

Efficacy, effort, and cost comparisons of trapping and acetaminophen-baiting for control of brown treesnakes on Guam, Larry Clark, Peter J. Savarie, John A. Shivik, Stewart W. Breck, and Brian S. Dorr

Identification and Analysis of the First 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus from U.S. Feral Swine, A. Clavijo, Amir Nikooienejad, M. S. Esfahani, Richard P. Metz, Scott Schwartz, Esmaeli Atashpaz-Gargari, Thomas J. Deliberto, M. W. Lutman, Kerri Pedersen, L. R. Bazan, L. G. Koster, M. Jenkins-Moore, S. L. Swenson, M. Zhang, T. Beckham, Charles D. Johnson, and Mohammad Bounpheng

Colony Connectivity of Pacific Coast Double-Crested Cormorants Based on Post-Breeding Dispersal From the Region’s Largest Colony, Karen N. Courtot, Daniel D. Roby, Jessica Y. Adkins, Donald E. Lyons, D. Tommy King, and R. Scott Larsen

Pond-Level Risk Factors Associated with Columnaris Disease on Mississippi Commercial Catfish Farms, Fred L. Cunningham, Skip W. Jack, David Hardin, and Robert W. Wills

Spatial and temporal comparisons of double-crested cormorant diets following the establishment of alewife in Lake Champlain, USA, Robin L. DeBruyne, Travis L. DeVault, Adam E. Duerr, David E. Capen, Fred E. Pogmore, James R. Jackson, and Lars G. Rudstam

Airports Offer Unrealized Potential for Alternative Energy Production, Travis L. DeVault, Jerrold L. Belant, Bradley F. Blackwell, James A. Martin, Jason A. Schmidt, Loren Wes Burger Jr, and James W. Patterson Jr.

Characterization of Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated from Cormorant and Gull Species in the United States in 2010, Diego G. Diel, Patti J. Miller, Paul C. Wolf, Randall M. Mickley, Anthony R. Musante, Daniel C. Emanueli, Kirk J. Shively, Kerri Pedersen, and Claudio L. Afonso

Double-Crested Cormorant Distribution on Catfish Aquaculture in the Yazoo River Basin of Mississippi, Brian S. Dorr, Loren W. Burger, Scott C. Barras, and Kristina Casscles Godwin

Economic Impact of Double-Crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, Depredation on Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Aquaculture in Mississippi, USA, Brian S. Dorr, Loren Wes Burger Jr, Scott Barras, and Kristina Casscles-Godwin

Management of double-crested cormorants to improve sport fi sheries in Michigan: three case studies, Brian S. Dorr, Shauna L. Hanisch, Peter H. Butchko, and David G. Fielder

Seasonal Variation of Coyote Diet in Northwestern Wyoming: Implications for Dietary Overlap with Canada Lynx?, Jennifer L. B. Dowd and Eric M. Gese

Ecology And Geography Of Human Monkeypox Case Occurrences Across Africa, Christine K. Ellis, Darin S. Carroll, Ryan R. Lash, A. Townsend Peterson, Inger K. Damon, Jean Malekani, and Pierre Formenty

Toxoplasma gondii in Circumpolar People and Wildlife, Stacey A. Elmore, Emily J. Jenkins, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Lydden Polley, J. Jeffrey Root, and Chester G. Moore

Feral swine disturbance at important archaeological sites, Richard Engeman, Kathy J. Couturier, Rodney K. Felix Jr., and Michael L. Avery

Egg Oiling to Reduce Hatch-Year Ring-Billed Gull Numbers on Chicago’s Beaches During Swim Season and Water Quality Test Results, Richard M. Engeman, John W. Hartmann, Scott F. Beckerman, Thomas W. Seamans, and Sarah Abu-Absi

Wildlife Services—A Leader in Developing Tools and Techniques for Managing Carnivores, Kathleen A. Fagerstone and Gail Keirn

Environmental and Demographic Determinants of Avian Influenza Viruses in Waterfowl across the Contiguous United States, Matthew Farnsworth, Ryan S. Miller, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, Seth R. Swafford, Philip D. Riggs, and Colleen T. Webb

Weak Polygyny in California Sea Lions and the Potential for Alternative Mating Tactics, Ramona Flatz, Manuela González-Suárez, Julie K. Young, Claudia J. Hernández-Camacho, Aaron J. Immel, and Leah R. Gerber

The status of Canada Goose Branta canadensis subspecies in Greenland, Anthony D. Fox, David Sinnett, John Baroch, David A. Stroud, Kaj Kampp, Carsten Egevang, and David Boertmann

Mucosal Adjuvants to Improve Wildlife Rabies Vaccination, Tricia Fry, Kaci Van Dalen, Jerome Hurley, and Paul Nash

Using radio-telemetry to assess the risk European starlings pose in pathogen transmission among feedlots, Shannon M. Gaukler, H. Jeffrey Homan, George M. Linz, and William J. Bleier

Designing a monitoring plan, Eric M. Gese, Hilary S. Cooley, and Frederick F. Knowlton

Influence of the urban matrix on space use of coyotes in the Chicago metropolitan area, Eric M. Gese, Paul S. Morey, and Stanley D. Gehrt

Do gastrointestinal taste receptors contribute to associative learning and foraging behavior?, G. J. Golden, A. M. Hussey, and B. A. Kimball

Towards optimized population control efficiency in space and time: A modelling framework adapted to a colonial waterbird, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S. Dorr, and Guiming Wang

Widespread avian bornavirus infection in mute swans in the Northeast United States, Jianhua Guo, Lina Covaleda, J Jill Heatley, John A. Baroch, Ian Tizard, and Susan L. Payne

Influenza Exposure In United States Feral Swine Populations, Jeffrey S. Hall, Richard B. Minnis, Tyler A. Campbell, Scott Barras, Randy W. DeYoung, Kristy Pabilonia, Michael L. Avery, Heather Sullivan, Larry Clark, and Robert G. McLean

Report to the City of Chicago on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2011 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, J.W. Hartmann, S.F. Beckerman, R. M. Engeman, T.W. Seamans, and S. Abu-Absi

Surveillance for Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Denmark and Greenland, 2007–10, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, Solvej Østergaard Breum, Ramona Trebbien, Kurt Jensen Handberg, Ole Roland Therkildsen, Jesper Johannes Madsen, Kasper Thorup, John A. Baroch, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Lars Erik Larsen, and Poul Henrik Jørgensen