National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

4101 LaPorte Avenue
Fort Collins, CO 80521
tel: (970) 266-6000 fax: (970) 266-6032

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


Evaluating and validating abundance monitoring methods in the absence of populations of known size: review and application to a passive tracking index, Lee R. Allen and Richard M. Engeman

Modeling the cost of bird strikes to US civil aircraft, Aaron Anderson, David S. Carpenter, Michael J. Begier, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents, A. Anderson and S. A. Shwiff

Impacts of colonial waterbirds on vegetation and potential restoration of island habitats, Christopher R. Ayers, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Sadie O'Dell, Charles D. Lovell, Michael L. Jones, Jason R. Suckow, and Brian S. Dorr

A Behaviorally-Explicit Approach for Delivering Vaccine Baits to Mesopredators to Control Epizootics in Fragmented Landscapes, James C. Beasley, Todd C. Atwood, Michael E. Byrne, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Shylo R. Johnson, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Capillaria hepatica infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) on Diego Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory, Are R. Berentsen, Scott Vogt, Antenor N. Guzman, Daniel S. Vice, William C. Pitt, Aaron B. Shiels, and Terry R. Spraker

Serological Investigation of Heartland Virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) Exposure in Wild and Domestic Animals Adjacent to Human Case Sites in Missouri 2012–2013, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, Nicholas A. Panella, J. Jeffrey Root, Tom Gidlewski, R. Ryan Lash, Jessica R. Harmon, Kristen L. Burkhalter, Marvin S. Godsey, Harry M. Savage, William L. Nicholson, Nicholas Komar, and Aaron C. Brault

Effects of mountain beaver management and thinning on 15-year-old Douglas fir growth and survival, Dan L. Campbell, Richard M. Engeman, and James P. Farley

Assessment of variation of nest survival for grassland birds due to method of nest discovery, Tara J. Conkling, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. Devault, Guiming Wang, and James A. Martin

Carnivore incidents with U.S. civil aircraft, Alexander R. Crain, Jerrold L. Belant, and Travis L. DeVault

Assessment of Population Structure of Coyotes in East-Central Alabama using Microsatellite DNA, Dalinda L. Damm, James B. Armstrong, Wendy M. Arjo, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Cowbird responses to aircraft with lights tuned to their eyes: Implications for bird–aircraft collisions, Megan S. Doppler, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Influence of Simulated Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, Predation on Multiple-batch Production of Channel Catfish,Ictalurus punctatus, Brian S. Dorr and Carole R. Engle

Shared genetic diversity across the global invasive range of the monk parakeet suggests a common restricted geographic origin and the possibility of convergent selection, Pim Edelaar, Severine Roques, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Michael L. Avery, Michael A. Russello, Juan C. Senar, Timothy F. Wright, Martina Carrete, and José L. Tella

LEPTODEIRA SEPTENTRIONALIS (Northern Cat-eyed Snake), Richard M. Engeman and Carrie Engeman

Spatially Explicit Modeling of Blackbird Abundance in the Prairie Pothole Region, Greg M. Forcey, Wayne E. Thogmartin, George M. Linz, Patrick C. McKann, and Shawn M. Crimmins

Tick-borne Diseases in Syntopic Populations of Fallow Deer (Dama dama) and Axis Deer (Axis axis) in Northern Mexico, Zeferino García-Vázquez, J. Alfonso Ortega-S., Antonio Cantu-Covarruvias, Juan Mosqueda, David G. Hewitt, Randall W. DeYoung, Tyler A. Campbell, and Fred C. Bryant

Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala, Amy Gilbert, Lauren Greenberg, David Moran, Marlon Alvarado, Daniel L. Garcia, and Leonard Peruski

Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercialmodified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala, Amy Gilbert, Lauren Greenberg, David Moran, Danilo Alvarez, Marlon Alvarado, Daniel L. Garcia, and Leonard Peruski

Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls, Jianhua Guo, Ian Tizard, John Baroch, H L. Shivaprasad, and Susan L. Payne

Erratum: The socioecology of Monk Parakeets: Insights into parrot social complexity, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Michael L. Avery, and Timothy F. Wright

The effect of social context and social scale on the perception of relationships in monk parakeets, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Darlene J. John, Tiffany L. Mcintosh, Michael L. Avery, and Timonthy F. Wright

Molecular assessment of translocation and management of an endangered subspecies of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Matthew W. Hopken, Tod M. Lum, Paul M. Meyers, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Human Disturbance and the Physiological Response of Elk in Eastern Washington, D. S. Jachowski, S. McCorquodale, Brian E. Washburn, and Joshua J. Millspaugh

Shifting perceptions of risk and reward: Dynamic selection for human development by black bears in the western United States, H. E. Johnson, S. W. Breck, S. Baruch-Mordo, D. L. Lewis, C. W. Lackey, K. R. Wilson, J. Broderick, J. S. Mao, and J. P. Beckmann


Best practice guidelines for rat eradication on tropical islands, B. Keitt, R. Griffiths, S. Boudjelas, K. Broome, S. Cranwell, J. Millett, W. Pitt, and A. Samaniego-Herrera

Influenza A Virus H5–specific Antibodies in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the USA, Whitney M. Kistler, David E. Stallknecht, Camille Lebarbenchon, Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Randy Mickley, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Michael J. Yabsley

Chemical repellents appear non-useful for eliciting exit of brown tree snakes from cargo, Fred Kraus, Randal Stahl, and William Pitt

Thermal fumigation provides a simple and effective solution for sanitizing cargo from invasive snakes, Fred Kraus, Randal Stahl, and William Pitt

Deer response to exclusion from stored cattle feed in Michigan, USA, Michael J. Lavelle, Henry Campa III, Kyle LeDoux, Patrick J. Ryan, Justin W. Fischer, Kim M. Pepin, Chad R. Blass, Michael P. Glow, Scott E. Hygnstrom, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Effects of barred owl (Strix varia) range expansion on Haemoproteus parasite assemblage dynamics and transmission in barred and northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), Krista E. Lewicki, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Lowell V. Diller, and Alan B. Franklin

Animal reactions to oncoming vehicles: a conceptual review, Steven L. Lima, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Limitations of population suppression for protecting crops from bird depredation: A review, George M. Linz, Enrique H. Bucher, Sonia B. Canavelli, Ethel Rodriguez, and Michael L. Avery

WEST NILE VIRUS ANTIBODY DECAY RATE IN FREE-RANGING BIRDS, Eileen M. McKee, Edward D. Walker, Tavis K. Anderson, Uriel D. Kitron, Jeffrey D. Brawn, Bethany L. Krebs, Christina Newman, Marilyn O. Ruiz, Rebecca S. Levine, Mary E. Carrington, Robert G. McLean, Tony L. Goldberg, and Gabriel L. Hamer

Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies and exposure to bats in two rural communities in Guatemala, David Moran, Patricia Juliao, Danilo Alvarez, Kim A. Lindblade, James A. Ellison, Amy T. Gilbert, Brett Petersen, Charles Rupprecht, and Sergio Recuenco

Predator-induced renesting and reproductive effort in indigo buntings: more work for less pay?, Dana L. Morris, John Faaborg, Brian E. Washburn, and Joshua J. Millspaugh

Novel Paramyxoviruses in Bats from Sub-Saharan Africa, 2007–2012, Marinda Mortlock, Ivan V. Kuzmin, Jacqueline Weyer, Amy T. Gilbert, Bernard Agwanda, Charles E. Rupprecht, Louis H. Nel, Teresa Kearney, Jean M. Malekani, and Wanda Markotter

Establishing a definition of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health: A guide to research and management activities, Kelly A. Park, Colleen Duncan, Pauline Noi, Christian Sonne, Kristin Laidre, Martyn Obbard, Oystein Wiig, Jon Aars, Eric Regehr, Lori L. Gustafson, and Todd Atwood

Widespread detection of antibodies to Leptospira in feral swine in the United States, K. Pedersen, K. L. Pabilonia, T. D. Anderson, S. N. Bevins, C. R. Hicks, J. M. Kloft, and Thomas J. Deliberto

Utility of mosquito surveillance data for spatial prioritization of vector control against dengue viruses in three Brazilian cities, Kim M. Pepin, Clint B. Leach, Cecilia Marques-Toledo, Karla H. Laass, Kelly S. Paixao, Angela D. Luis, David T.S. Hayman, Nels D. Johnson, Michael G. Buhnerkempe, Scott Carver, Daniel A. Grear, Kimberly Tsao, Alvaro E. Eiras, and Colleen T. Webb

Evaluating landowner-based beaver relocation as a tool to restore salmon habitat, V. M. Petro, J. D. Taylor, and D. M. Sanchez

Non-target species mortality and the measurement of brodifacoum rodenticide residues after a rat (Rattus rattus) eradication on Palmyra Atoll, tropical Pacific, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, Aaron B. Shiels, Steven F. Volker, John D. Eisemann, Alexander S. Wegmann, and Gregg R. Howald

Effect of travel distance, home range, and bait on the management of small Indian mongooses, Herpestes auropunctatus, William C. Pitt, Robert T. Sugihara, and Are R. Berentsen

Anticoagulant Rodenticide Exposure and Toxicosis in Coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Sharon A. Poessel, Stewart W. Breck, Karen A. Fox, and Eric M. Gese

Improving the odds: Assessing bait availability before rodent eradications to aid in selecting bait application rates, Madeleine Pott, Alexander S. Wegmann, Richard Griffiths, Araceli Samaniego-Herrera, Richard J. Cuthbert, M. de L. Brooke, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, Nick D. Holmes, Gregg R. Howald, Karina Ramos-Rendon, and James C. Russell

Evaluation of Resident Canada Goose Movements to Reduce the Risk of Goose-Aircraft Collisions at Suburban Airports, M. Elizabeth Rutledge, Christopher E. Moorman, Brian E. Washburn, and Christopher S. Deperno

AN INDIVIDUAL-BASED MODEL FOR FERAL HOGS IN GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK, Rene A. Salinas, William H. Stiver, Joseph L. Corn, Suzanne Lenhart, Charles Collins, Marguerite Madden, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Brandon B. Schmit, Ellen Kasari, Agricola Odoi, Graham Hickling, and Hamish McCallum

Assessing Chemical Control of Earthworms at Airports, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Glen E. Bernhardt, and Daniel A. Potter

Modeling the economic impacts of double-crested cormorant damage to a recreational fishery, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Travis L. DeVault, and Steven S. Shwiff

EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC FISHMEAL POLYMER BAITS FOR THE CONTROL OF BAYLISASCARIS PROCYONIS IN FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR), Timothy J. Smyser, Shylo R. Johnson, Melissa D. Stallard, Ashley K. McGrew, L. Kristen Page, Nikki Crider, Lora R. Ballweber, Robert K. Swihart, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease, Terry R. Spraker, Thomas Gidlewski, Jenny G. Powers, Tracy Nichols, Aru Balachandran, Bruce Cummings, Margaret A. Wild, Kurt VerCauteren, and Katherine I. O’Rourke

Fecal Volatile Organic Ccompound Profiles from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as Indicators of Mycobacterium bovis Exposure or Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccination, Randal S. Stahl, Christine K. Ellis, Pauline Nol, W. Ray Waters, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Review of the 2012 Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in Domestic Ruminants in the United States, G Stevens, B McCluskey, A King, E O'Hearn, and G Mayr

Threats to humans and beasts, Kurt C. VerCauteren


Anthraquinone-based repellent for horned larks, great-tailed grackles, American crows and the protection of California's specialty crops, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Anna M. Mangan, Susan E. Pettit, Jeremy W. Ellis, and James C. Carlson

Is anthropogenic cougar mortality compensated by changes in natural mortality in Utah? Insight from long-term studies, Michael L. Wolfe, David N. Koons, David C. Stoner, Patricia Terletzky, Eric M. Gese, David M. Choate, and Lise M. Aubry

Is anthropogenic cougar mortality compensated by changes in natural mortality in Utah? Insight from long-term studies, Michael L. Wolfe, David N. Koons, David C. Stoner, Patricia Terletzky, Eric M. Gese, David M. Choate, and Lise M. Aubry

Prion Amplification and Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling Refine Detection of Prion Infection, A. Christy Wyckoff, Nathan Galloway, Crystal Meyerett-Reid, Jenny Powers, Terry Spraker, Ryan J. Monello, Bruce Pulford, Margaret Wild, Michael Antolin, Kurt VerCauteren, and Mark Zabel


Sympatric prey responses to lethal top-predator control: predator manipulation experiments, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Does lethal control of top-predators release mesopredators? A re-evaluation of three Australian case studies, Benjamin L. Allen, Geoff Lundie-Jenkins, Neil D. Burrows, Richard M. Engeman, Peter J.S. Fleming, and Luke K.-P. Leung

The Short-Term Effects of a Routine Poisoning Campaign on the Movements and Detectability of a Social Top-Predator., B l. Allen, R. M. Engeman, and L. K-P. Leung

Forecasting the spread of raccoon rabies using a purpose-specific group decision-making process., Aaron M. Anderson, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Richard B. Chipman, Todd C. Atwood, Tyler Cozzens, Frank Fillo, Robert Hale, Brody Hatch, Joanne Maki, Olin E. Rhodes, Erin E. Rees, Charles E. Rupprecht, Rowland Tinline, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and Dennis Slate

Invasive black spiny-tailed iguanas (Ctenosaura similis) on Gasparilla Island, Florida, USA, Michael L. Avery, Eric A. Tillman, Conny Spurfeld, Richard M. Engeman, Kelin P. Maciejewski, Jessica D. Brown, and Emily A. Fetzer

Effectiveness of Rodenticides for Managing Invasive Roof Rats and Native Deer Mice in Orchards, Roger A. Baldwin, Niamh Quinn, David H. Davis, and Richard M. Engeman

Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens, John A. Baroch, Carl A. Gagnon, Sonia Lacouture, and Marcelo Gottschalk

Stochasticity in Natural Forage Production Affects Use of Urban Areas by Black Bears: Implications to Management of Human-Bear Conflicts, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Kenneth R. Wilson, David L. Lewis, John Broderick, Julie S. Mao, and Stewart W. Breck

Preference among 7 bait flavors delivered to domestic dogs in Arizona: Implications for oral rabies vaccination on the Navajo Nation, Are R. Berentsen, Scott C. Bender, David Bergman, Krista Hausig, and Kurt Vercauteren

Evaluation of 6 ONRAB Ultralite bait flavor matrices delivered to coyotes (Canis latrans): Implications for oral rabies vaccination, Are R. Berentsen, Stacey P. Brummer, Julie K. Young, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Bait matrix flavor preference by mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) in Puerto Rico: Implications for Oral Rabies Vaccination, Are R. Berentsen, Shylo R. Johnson, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Characteristics of White-Tailed Deer Visits to Cattle Farms: Implications for Disease Transmission at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface, Are R. Berentsen, Ryan S. Miller, Jennifer L. Malmberg, and Mike R. Dunbar

Longevity of Rodenticide Bait Pellets in a Tropical Environment Following a Rat Eradication Program, Are R. Berentsen, William C. Pitt, John D. Eisemann, and Richard M. Engeman

Large-Scale Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds throughout the United States, Sarah N. Bevins, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, John A. Baroch, Brandon S. Schmit, Dennis Kohler, Thomas Gidlewski, Dale L. Nolte, Seth R. Swafford, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Consequences Associated with the Recent Range Expansion of Nonnative Feral Swine, Sarah N. Bevins, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, Thomas Gidlewski, and Thomas J. DeLiberto


Integrating mammalian hazards with management at U.S. civil airports: a case study., Kristin M. Biondi, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin, Travis L. DeVault, and Guiming Wang

White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger, Bradley F. Blackwelll, Thomas W. Seamans, and Travis L. DeVault

The Influence of Study Species Selection on Estimates of Pesticide Exposure in Free-Ranging Birds, Shannon Borges, Nimish B. Vyas, and Mary Christman

New species records and changes in abundance of waterfowl in northwest Greenland, K. K. Burnham, D. R. Sinnett, J. A. Johnson, J. L. Burnham, and J. A. Baroch

Calving location selection patterns of saiga antelope in Mongolia, B. Buuveibaatar, T. K. Fuller, J. K. Young, and J. Berger

Population Dynamics of Double-Crested Cormorants in Two Interior Breeding Areas, Jennifer E. Chastant, D. Tommy King, D.V. Chip Weseloh, and David J. Moore

Disease Risks ·Posed by Wild Birds Associated with Agricultural Landscapes, Larry Clark

The Chemical Senses in Birds, Larry Clark, Julie Hagelin, and Scott Werner

Risk Factors Associated with Enteric Septicemia of Catfish on Mississippi Commercial Catfish Farms, Fred L. Cunningham, S. W. Jack, David Hardin, and Robert W. Wills

Incorporating Cold-Air Pooling into Downscaled Climate Models Increases Potential Refugia for Snow-Dependent Species within the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion, CA, Jennifer A. Curtis, Lorraine E. Flint, Alan L. Flint, Jessica D. Lundquist, Brian Hudgens, Erin E. Boydston, and Julie K. Young


Finding a Fox: An Evaluation of Survey Methods to Estimate Abundance of a Small Desert Carnivore, Steven J. Dempsey, Eric M. Gese, and Bryan M. Kluever

Review of Wildlife Damage Management: Prevention, Problem Solving and Conflict Resolution, Travis L. DeVault

Effects of Vehicle Speed on Flight Initiation by Turkey Vultures: Implications for Bird-Vehicle Collisions, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, and Esteban Fernandez-Juricic

Speed kills: ineffective avian escape responses to oncoming vehicles, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, and Esteban Fernandez-Juricic

Influence of egg oiling on colony presence of ring-billed gulls, Travis L. DeVault, Paige M. Schmidt, Fred E. Pogmore, John Gobeille, Jerrold L. Belant, and Thomas W. Seamans

Bird Use of Solar Photovoltaic Installations at US Airports: Implications for Aviation Safety, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, Jason A. Schmidt, Jerrold L. Belant, Bradley F. Blackwell, Nicole Mooers, Laura A. Tyson, and Lolita VanPelt

Geographic segregation and evidence of density-dependent changes in sex ratios in an abundant colonial waterbird, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Travis L. DeVault, Alban Guillaumet, and Scott C. Barras

Winter Space Use of Coyotes in High-Elevation Environments: Behavioral Adaptations to Deep-Snow Landscapes, Jennifer L.B. Dowd, Eric M. Gese, and Lise M. Aubry

Interactions Between Wildlife and Civil Aircraft in Mississippi, Kelsey M. Drey, James A. Martin, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and Bradley F. Blackwell

Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) Dispersal by European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), Ryan J. Edwards, Larry C. Clark, and K. George Beck

A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of Breath Analysis to Differentiate Healthy Cattle from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis, Christine K. Ellis, Randal S. Stahl, Pauline Nol, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Matthew McCollum, and M. D. Salman

Bat Rabies in Guatemala, James E. Ellison, Amy T. Gilbert, Sergio Recuenco, David Moran, Danilo A. Alvarez, Natalia Kuzmina, Daniel L. Garcia, Leonard F. Peruski, Mary T. Mendonca, Kim A. Lindblade, and Charles E. Rupprecht

Weighing empirical and hypothetical evidence for assessing potential invasive species range limits: a review of the case of Burmese pythons in the USA, Richard Engeman, Michael L. Avery, and Elliot Jacobson