National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

4101 LaPorte Avenue
Fort Collins, CO 80521
tel: (970) 266-6000 fax: (970) 266-6032

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.


Evidence for continental-scale dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria by landfill-foraging gulls, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Mariëlle L. van Toor, Hanna Woksepp, Jeffrey C. Chandler, John A. Reed, Andrew B. Reeves, Jonas Waldenström, Alan B. Franklin, David C. Douglas, Jonas Bonnedahl, and Andrew M. Ramey

Spatial transferability of expert opinion models for American beaver habitat, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Guiming Wang, Kristine O. Evans, Qingmin Meng, and Jimmy D. Taylor

Multi-level movement response of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) to removal, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Peter E. Schlichting, David A. Keiter, Joshua B. Smith, John C. Kilgo, George Wittemyer, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley, and Kim M. Pepin

Evaluating potential effects of solar power facilities on wildlife from an animal behavior perspective, Rachel Y. Chock, Barbara Clucas, Elizabeth K. Peterson, Bradley Blackwell, Daniel T. Blumstein, Kathleen Church, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Gabriel Francescoli, Alison L. Greggor, Paul Kemp, Gabriela M. Pinho, Peter M. Sanzenbacher, Bruce A. Schulte, and Pauline Toni

Food habits of wintering double-crested cormorants in the Mississippi Delta, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, J. Brian Davis, Luke A. Roy, Carole R. Engle, Katie Hanson-Dorr, and Anita M. Kelly

Principal economic effects of cormorant predation on catfish farms, Carole R. Engle, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, Ganesh Kumar, Luke A. Roy, and Anita M. Kelly

Embracing Dynamic Models for Gene Drive Management, Andrew J. Golnar, Emily W. Ruell, Alun L. Lloyd, and Kim M. Pepin

Continental-scale dynamics of avian influenza in U.S. waterfowl are driven by demography, migration, and temperature, Erin E. Gorsich, Colleen T. Webb, Andrew A. Merton, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew Farnsworth, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Kerri Pedersen, Alan B. Franklin, Robert G. McLean, Kenneth R. Wilson, and Paul Doherty

Environmental correlates of genetic variation in the invasive European starling in North America, Natalie R. Hofmeister, Scott J. Werner, and Irby J. Lovette

Population genomic transformations induced by isolation of wild bird avian influenza viruses (Orthomyxoviridae) in embryonated chicken eggs, Matthew W. Hopken, Antoinette J. Piaggio, K. L. Pabilonia, James Pierce, Theodore Anderson, Courtney Pierce, and Zaid Abdo

Temporal and Spatial Blood Feeding Patterns of Urban Mosquitoes in the San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico, Matthew W. Hopken, Limarie J. Reyes-Torres, Nicole Scavo, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Zaid Abdo, Daniel Taylor, James Pierce, and Donald A. Yee

Peptide ELISA and FRET-qPCR Identified a Significantly Higher Prevalence of Chlamydia suis in Domestic Pigs Than in Feral Swine from the State of Alabama, USA, Md Monirul Hoque, Folasade Adekanmbi, Subarna Barua, Kh. Shamsur Rahman, Virginia Aida, Brian Anderson, Anil Poudel, Anwar Kalalah, Sara Bolds, Steven Madere, Steven Kitchens, Stuart Price, Vienna Brown, B. Graeme Lockaby, Constantinos S. Kyriakis, Bernhard Kaltenboeck, and Chengming Wang

Serological Responses of Raccoons and Striped Skunks to Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait in West Virginia during 2012–2016, Shylo R. Johnson, Dennis Slate, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy J. Davis, Samual A. Mills, John T. Forbes, Kurt VerCauteren, Amy T. Gilbert, and Richard B. Chipman

Inefficiency of anthraquinone-based avian repellents when applied to sunflower: the importance of crop vegetative and floral characteristics in field applications, Brandon Kaiser, Burton L. Johnson, Mike Ostlie, Scott J. Werner, and Page E. Klug

Estimation of wildlife damage from federal crop insurance data, Sophie McKee, Stephanie A. Shwiff, and Aaron M. Anderson

Understanding tolerance for an invasive species: An investigation of hunter acceptance capacity for wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in Texas, Hailey E. McLean, Tara L. Teel, Alan Bright, Lauren M. Jaebker, John M. Tomecek, Maureen G. Frank, Rachael L. Connally, Stephanie A. Shwiff, and Keith M. Carlisle

Great Expectations: Deconstructing the Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, and Jimmy Taylor

Variation in Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in definitive and intermediate hosts in Hawaii, a global hotspot of rat lungworm disease, Chris Niebuhr, Shane R. Siers, Israel Leinbach, Lisa M. Kaluna, and Susan I. Jarvi

Factors Influencing Survival Rates of Pronghorn Fawns in Idaho, Brett R. Panting, Eric M. Gese, Mary M. Conner, and Scott Bergen

A framework for surveillance of emerging pathogens at the human-animal interface: Pigs and coronaviruses as a case study, Kim M. Pepin, Ryan S. Miller, and Mark Q. Wilber

Modeling Mongoose Rabies in the Caribbean: A Model-Guided Fieldwork Approach to Identify Research Priorities, Caroline C. Sauvé, Erin E. Rees, Amy T. Gilbert, Are R. Berentsen, Agathe Allibert, and Patrick A. Leighton

The evolutionary consequences of human–wildlife conflict in cities, Christopher J. Schell, Lauren Stanton, Julie K. Young, Lisa Angeloni, Joanna E. Lambert, Stewart W. Breck, and Maureen H. Murray

SARS-CoV-2 Exposure in Escaped Mink, Utah, USA, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Anthraquinone repellent seed treatment on corn reduces feeding by wild pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Scott J. Werner, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Evaluating the effects of mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) management on conifer stocking in western Oregon, Jimmy D. Taylor and Vanessa M. Petro

Avian Use of Exotic Street Treescapes in Metropolitan Areas of Phoenix, Arizona, Brian E. Washburn, Karen Hoss, and David L. Bergman

Toxicity of sodium nitrite-based vertebrate pesticides for European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Hailey E. McLean, Katherine E. Horak, and Kirt C. VerCauteren


Competing reproductive and physiological investments in an all‑female lizard, the Colorado checkered whiptail, Lise M. Aubry, Spencer B. Hudson, Bryan M. Kluever, Alison C. Webb, and Susannah S. French

Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monarchus Boddaert, 1783), Michael L. Avery

Control or eradication: Problems in the management of invasive birds, Michael L. Avery and Chris J. Feare

Relationships between survival and habitat suitability of semi- aquatic mammals, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Jimmy Taylor, Kristine O. Evans, Ryo Ogawa, Lance McClintic, and Guiming Wang

Local adaptation constrains drought tolerance in a tropical foundation tree, Kasey E. Barton, Casey Jones, Kyle F. Edwards, Aaron B. Shiels, and Tiffany Knight

Additive and non-additive responses of seedlings to simulated herbivory and drought, Kasey Barton and Aaron B. Shiels

Talking trash in the Big Apple: mitigating bird strikes near the North Shore Marine Transfer Station, Stephan J. Beffre and Brian E. Washburn

Placebo Oral Rabies Vaccine Bait Uptake by Small Indian Mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) in Southwestern Puerto Rico, Are R. Berentsen, Richard B. Chipman, Kathleen M. Nelson, Kenneth S. Gruver, Frank Boyd, Steven F. Volker, Amy J. Davis, Ad Vos, Steffen Ortmann, and Amy Gilbert

Predator scent and visual cue applied to nest boxes fail to dissuade European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from nesting, Bradley Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Morgan Pfeiffer, and Bruce N. Buckingham

Technical Limitations Associated With Molecular Barcoding of Arthropod Bloodmeals Taken From North American Deer Species, Erin M. Borland, Daniel A. Hartman, Matthew W. Hopken, Antoinette J. Piaggio, and Rebekah C. Kading

Timing and extent of crop damage by wild pigs (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) to corn and peanut fields, C. M. Boyce, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and James C. Beasley

Fish-Eating Birds on Catfish Ponds in the Mississippi Delta, Paul Burr, Jimmy Avery, Garrett Street, Bronson Strickland, and Brian Dorr

Piscivorous Bird Use of Aquaculture and Natural Water Bodies in Mississippi, Paul C. Burr, Jimmy I. Avery, Garrett M. Street, Bronson K. Strickland, and Brian S. Dorr

Historic and contemporary use of catfish aquaculture by piscivorous birds in the Mississippi Delta, Paul C. Burr, Jimmy L. Avery, Garrett M. Street, Bronson K. Strickland, and Brian S. Dorr

Bird-livestock interactions associated with increased cattle fecal shedding of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli within feedlots in the United States, James C. Carlson, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Bledar Bisha, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, and Thomas E. Wittum

The Role of European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in the Dissemination of Multidrug- Resistant Escherichia coli among Concentrated Animal feeding Operations, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Jennifer E. Anders, Nicolas A. Blouin, James C. Carlson, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, Lawrence D. Goodridge, Baolin Wang, Leslie A. Day, Anna M. Mangan, Dustin A. Reid, Shannon M. Coleman, Matthew W. Hopken, and Bledar Bisha

Validation of a screening method for the detection of colistin-resistant E. coli containing mcr-1 in feral swine feces, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Alan B. Franklin, S. N. Bevins, Kevin T. Bentler, Jonas Bonnedahl, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Bledar Bisha, and Susan A. Shriner

An evaluation of bird and bat mortality at wind turbines in the Northeastern United States, Daniel Y. Choi, Thomas W. Wittig, and Bryan M. Kluever

Cormorant Predation of Commercial Catfish Aquaculture in the Mississippi Delta, Terrel Christie, Brian Dorr, Luke Roy, Anita M. Kelly, Carole Engle, Paul Burr, Brian Davis, and Jonathan van Senten

Using bioenergetics and radar-derived bird abundance to assess the impact of a blackbird roost on seasonal sunflower damage, Bonnie A. Clark, Page E. Klug, Phillip M. Stepanian, and Jeffrey F. Kelly

Invasive Species Control and Resolution of Wildlife Damage Conflicts: A Framework for Chemical and Genetically Based Management Methods, Larry Clark, John Eisemann, John Godwin, Katherine Horak, Kevin Oh, Jeanette R. O'Hare, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Kim M. Pepin, and Emily W. Ruell

Serum chemistry values in wild black vultures in Mississippi, USA, Fred L. Cunningham, Sherman W. Jack, Amanda R. Deese, Eric R. Wengert, Kyle Van Why, Carla L. Huston, Scott Lemmons, and Richard B. Minnis

A comparison of cost and quality of three methods for estimating density for wild pig (Sus scrofa), Amy J. Davis, David A. Keiter, Elizabeth M. Kierepka, C. Slootmaker, Antoinette J. Piaggio, James C. Beasley, and K. M. Pepin

Repellent surface applications for pest birds, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, James C. Carlson, Hailey E. McLean, Caroline S. Olson, and Scott J. Werner

Frontal vehicle illumination via rear-facing lighting reduces potential for collisions with white-tailed deer, Travis L. Devault, Thomas W. Seamans, and Bradley Blackwell

Population increases of large birds in North America pose challenges for aviation safety, Richard A. Dolbeer

Testing a key assumption of using drones as frightening devices: Do birds perceive drones as risky?, Conor C. Egan, Bradley Blackwell, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, and Page E. Klug


Evaluating moose Alces alces population response to infestation level of winter ticks Dermacentor albipictus, Daniel D. Ellingwood, Peter J. Pekins, Henry Jones, and Anthony R. Musante

The changing triad of plague in Uganda: invasive black rats (Rattus rattus), indigenous small mammals, and their fleas, Russell E. Enscore, Nackson Babi, Gerald Amatre, Linda Atiku, Rebecca J. Eisen, Kim M. Pepin, Rommelle Vera-Tudela, Christopher Sexton, and Kenneth L. Gage

Review of Ospreys: The Revival of a Global Raptor, by Alan F. Poole. 2019., Lisa Fields and Brian E. Washburn

Factors and costs associated with removal of a newly established population of invasive wild pigs in Northern U.S., Justin W. Fischer, Nathan P. Snow, Bradley E. Wilson, Scott F. Beckerman, Christopher N. Jacques, Eric H. VanNatta, Shannon L. Kay, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Spillover of SARS-CoV-2 into novel wild hosts in North America: A conceptual model for perpetuation of the pathogen, Alan B. Franklin and Sarah N. Bevins

Gulls as Sources of Environmental Contamination by Colistin-resistant Bacteria, Alan B. Franklin, Andrew M. Ramey, Kevin T. Bentler, Nicole L. Barrett, Loredana M. McCurdy, Christina A. Ahlstrom, Jonas Bonnedahl, Susan A. Shriner, and Jeffrey C. Chandler

Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of Intramuscular and Oral Delivery of ERA-G333 Recombinant Rabies Virus Vaccine to Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus), Amy T. Gilbert, Xianfu Wu, Felix R. Jackson, Richard Franka, Gary F. McCracken, and Charles E. Rupprecht

Effects of Wild Pig Disturbance on Forest Vegetation and Soils, Steven M. Gray, Gary J. Roloff, Daniel B. Kramer, Dwayne R. Etter, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and Robert A. Montgomery

RNAi: Applications in Vertebrate Pest Management, Katherine Horak

Effects of Deepwater Horizon oil on feather structure and thermoregulation in gulls: Does rehabilitation work?, Katherine Horak, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Emma M. Campbell, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, and Susan A. Shriner

Individual and population fitness consequences associated with large carnivore use of residential development, Heather Johnson, David L. Lewis, and Stewart W. Breck

Spotted owls and forest fire: Comment, Gavin M. Jones; R. J. Gutiérrez; William M. Block; Peter C. Carlson; Emily J. Comfort; Samuel A. Cushman; Raymond J. Davis; Stephanie A. Eyes; Alan B. Franklin; Joseph L. Ganey; Shaula Hedwall; John J. Keane; Rodd Kelsey; Damon B, Lesmeister; Malcolm P. North; Susan L. Roberts; Jeremy T. Rockweit; Jamie S. Sanderlin; Sarah C. Sawyer; Ben Solvesky; Douglas J. Tempel; Ho Yi Wan; A. LeRoy Westerling; Gary C. White; and M. Zachariah Peery

Migratory Flyways May Affect Population Structure in Double‐Crested Cormorants, Steven J.A. Kimble, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., and Travis L. Devault

Black vulture conflict and management in the United States: damage trends, management overview, and research needs, Bryan M. Kluever, Morgan Pfeiffer, Scott C. Barras, Brett Dunlap, and Lee A. Humberg

Movement behavior of radio-tagged European starlings in urban, rural, and exurban landscapes, Page E. Klug and H. Jeffrey Homan

Reporting the limits of detection and quantification for environmental DNA assays, Katy E. Klymus, Christopher M. Merkes, Michael J. Allison, Caren S. Goldberg, Caren C. Helbing, Margaret E. Hunter, Craig A. Jackson, Richard F. Lance, Anna M. Mangan, Emy M. Monroe, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Joel P. Stokdyk, Chris C. Wilson, and Catherine A. Richter

Linking mosquito surveillance to dengue fever through Bayesian mechanistic modeling, Clinton B. Leach, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Kim M. Pepin, Alvaro E. Eiras, Mevin B. Hooten, and Colleen T. Webb

Psychological drivers of risk-reducing behaviors to limit human–wildlife conflict, Stacy A. Lischka, Tara L. Teel, Heather E. Johnson, Courtney Larson, Stewart Breck, and Kevin R. Crooks

Core commitments for field trials of gene drive organisms, Kanya C. Long; Luke Alphey; George J. Annas; Cinnamon S. Bloss; Karl J. Campbell; Jackson Champer; Chun-Hong Chen; Amit Choudhary; George M. Church; James P. Collins; Kimberly L. Cooper; Jason A. Delborne; Owain R. Edwards; Claudia I. Emerson; Kevin Esvelt; Sam Weiss Evans; Robert M. Friedman; Valentino M. Gantz; Fred Gould; Sarah Hartley; Elizabeth Heitman; Janet Hemingway; Hirotaka Kanuka; Jennifer Kuzma; James V. Lavery; Yoosook Lee; Marce Lorenzen; Jeantine E. Lunshof; John M. Marshall; Philipp W. Messer; Craig Montell; Kenneth A. Oye; Megan J. Palmer; Philippos Aris Papathanos; Prasad N. Paradkar; Antoinette J. Piaggio; Jason L. Rasgon; Gordana Rašić; Larisa Rudenko; J. Royden Saah; Maxwell J. Scott; Jolene T. Sutton; Adam E, Vorsino; and Omar S. Akbari

Effect of vaccination with a novel GnRH-based immunocontraceptive on immune responses and fertility in rats, Giovanna Massei, D. Cowan, Douglas C. Eckery, Richard E. Mauldin, M. Gomm, P. Rochaix, Fergal Hill, R. Pinkham, and Laura A. Miller

Effects of brodifacoum and diphacinone exposure on four species of reptiles: tissue residue levels and survivorship, Richard E. Mauldin, Gary W. Witmer, S. A. Shriner, Rachael S. Moulton, and Katherine E. Horak

Economic estimates of invasive wild pig damage to crops in 12 US states, Sophie McKee, Aaron Anderson, Keith Carlisle, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Estimation of wildlife damage from federal crop insurance data, Sophie McKee, Stephanie A. Shwiff, and Aaron M. Anderson

Factors Affecting Bait Site Visitation: Area of Influence of Baits, Jacquelyn E. McRae, Peter E. Schlichting, Nathan P. Snow, Amy J. Davis, Kurt C. VerCautern, John C. Kilgo, David A. Keiter, James C. Beasley, and Kim M. Pepin

Public perspectives and media reporting of wolf reintroduction in Colorado, Rebecca Niemiec, Richard E.W. Berl, Mireille Gonzalez, Tara Teel, Cassiopeia Camara, Matthew Collins, Jonathan Salerno, Kevin Crooks, Courtney Schultz, Stewart Breck, and Dana Hoag

Effects of Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis Vaccination on Molokai-Origin Wild Pigs Experimentally Infected with Virulent M. bovis, Pauline Nol, Morgan Wehte, Richard A. Bowen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tyler Thacker, Kristina Lantz, Jack Rhyan, Laurie A. Baeten, Ramón A. Juste, Iker A. Sevilla, Christian Gortazar, and Joaquín Vicente

Hawaii as a Microcosm: Advancing the Science and Practice of Managing Introduced and Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, and Aaron B. Shiels

Ecological drivers of African swine fever virus persistence in wild boar populations: Insight for control, Kim M. Pepin, Andrew J. Golnar, Zaid Abdo, and Tomasz Podgórski

Optimal spatial prioritization of control resources for elimination of invasive species under demographic uncertainty, Kim M. Pepin, Timothy J. Smyser, Amy J. Davis, Ryan S. Miller, Sophie McKee, Kurt C. Vercauteren, William Kendall, and Chris Slootmaker

Optimal bait density for delivery of acute toxicants to vertebrate pests, Kim M. Pepin, Nathan P. Snow, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Collective effect of landfills and landscape composition on bird–aircraft collisions, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Travis L. DeVault

Deciphering interactions between white-tailed deer and approaching vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Travis L. DeVault

Loci Associated With Antibody Response in Feral Swine (Sus scrofa) Infected With Brucella suis, Courtney F. Pierce, Vienna R. Brown, Steven C. Olsen, Paola Boggiatto, Kerri Pedersen, Ryan S. Miller, Scott E. Speidel, and Timothy J. Smyser

Conspecific chemical cues facilitate mate trailing by invasive Argentine black and white tegus, Shannon A. Richard, Isabella M. G. Bukovich, E. A. Tillman, Sanjiv Jayamohan, J. S. Humphrey, Paige E. Carrington, William E. Bruce, Bryan M. Kluever, Michael L. Avery, and M. Rockwell Parker

Effects of freshwater crayfish on influenza A virus persistence in water, J. Jeffrey Root, Jeremy W. Ellis, and Susan A. Shriner

Avian Influenza A Virus Associations in Wild, Terrestrial Mammals: A Review of Potential Synanthropic Vectors to Poultry Facilities, J. Jeffrey Root and Susan A. Shriner

Influenza A Viruses in Peridomestic Mammals, J. Jeffrey Root and Susan A. Shriner

Invasive Wild pigs as primary nest predators for Wild turkeys, Heather N. Sanders, David G. Hewitt, Humberto L. perotto-Baldivieso, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Nathan P. Snow

A Rapid Population Assessment Method for Wild Pigs Using Baited Cameras at 3 Study Site, Peter E. Schlichting, James C. Beasley, Raoul K. Boughton, Amy J. Davis, Kim M. Pepin, Michael P. Glow, Ryan S. Miller, Kurt C. VerCautern, and Jesse S. Lewis

Cattle egrets regurgitate house mouse carcasses onto a mouse-free island: implications for rodent eradications, Aaron B. Shiels, Mele Khalsa, Doreen L. Griffin, Clay K. Chow, Sheri S. Mann, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Invasive rat establishment and changes in small mammal populations on Caribbean Islands following two hurricanes, Aaron B. Shiels, Claudia D. Lombard, Laura Shiels, and Zandy Hillis-Starr

A Review of Avian Influenza A Virus Associations in Synanthropic Birds, Susan A. Shriner and J. Jeffrey Root

Photographic Validation of Target Versus Nontarget Take of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, and Stephen M. Mosher

Brodifacoum residues in fish three years after an island-wide rat eradication attempt in the tropical Pacific, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Steven F. Volker, Kristen Rex, and William C. Pitt

Rabies Management Implications Based on Raccoon Population Density Indexes, Dennis Slate, Brandi D. Saidy, Ashlee Simmons, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy Davis, Timothy P. Algeo, Stacey A. Elmore, and Richard B. Chipman