National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


Environmental effects are stronger than human effects on mammalian predator-prey relationships in arid Australian ecosystems, Benjamin L. Allen, Alana Fawcett, Alison Anker, Richard M. Engeman, Allan Lisle, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Monk and Rose-Ringed Parakeets, Michael L. Avery and Aaron B. Shiels

Comparison of mixing methods and associated residual levels of zinc phosphide on cabbage bait for rodent management, Roger A. Baldwin, Benjamin G. Abbo, and David A. Goldade

Frogs (Coqui Frogs, Greenhouse Frogs, Cuban Tree Frogs, and Cane Toads), Karen H. Beard, Steve A. Johnson, and Aaron B. Shiels

Seroconversion of Raccoons Following Two Oral Rabies Vaccination Baiting Strategies, Are R. Berentsen, Erin M. Patrick, Chad Blass, Keith Wehner, Brett Dunlap, Bradley Hicks, Robert Hale, Richard B. Chipman, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Ecology of the Small Indian Mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) in North America, Are R. R. Berentsen, William C. Pitt, and Robert T. Sugihara

Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by European starlings: Projected effects on dairy cow performance and potential intervention strategies to mitigate damage, James C. Carlson, R. S. Stahl, S. T. DeLiberto, J. J. Wagner, T. E. Engle, R. M. Engeman, C. S. Olson, J. W. Ellis, and S. J. Werner

Brown Tree Snakes Methods and Approaches for Control, Larry Clark, Craig Clark, and Shane Siers

Using Off-the-Shelf Technologies to Mass Manufacture Oral Vaccine Baits for Wildlife, Lucila M. Corro, Daniel W. Tripp, Scott A. Stelting, and Michael W. Miller


Feral Goats and Sheep, Steven C. Hess, Dirk H. Van Vuren, and Gary W. Witmer

European Starlings, George M. Linz, Ron Johnson, and James Thiele

Antibody evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus detected in sera collected from feral swine (Sus scrofa) across the United States, Kerri Pedersen, Ryan S. Miller, Anthony R. Mustante, Timonthy S. White, James D. Freye II, and Thomas Gidlewski

Mitigation Translocation of Red-Tailed Hawks to Reduce Raptor–Aircraft Collisions, Craig K. Pullins, Travis L. Guerrant, Scott F. Beckerman, and Brian E. Washburn

Interactions between the invasive Burmese python, Python bivittatus Kuhl, and the local mosquito community in Florida, USA, Lawrence E. Reeves, Kenneth L. Krysko, Michael L. Avery, Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman, Akito Y. Kawahara, C. Roxanne Connelly, and Phillip E. Kaufman

Assessing the utility of metabarcoding for diet analyses of the omnivorous wild pig (Sus scrofa), Michael S. Robeson II, Kamil Khanipov, George Golovko, Samantha M. Wisely, Michael D. White, Michael Bodenchuck, Timothy J. Smyser, Yuriy Fofanov, Noah Fierer, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

It takes two: Evidence for reduced sexual conflict over parental care in a biparental canid, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Jill M. Mateo, and Rachel M. Santymire

Economics of Invasive Species Damage and Damage Management, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Steven S. Shwiff, Jason Holderieath, William Haden-Chomphosy, and Aaron M. Anderson

Potential secondary poisoning risks to non-targets from a sodium nitrite toxic bait for invasive wild pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Justin A. Foster, Eric H. VanNatta, Katherine E. Horak, Simon T. Humphrys, Linton D. Staples, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Evaluation of the palatability and toxicity of candidate baits and toxicants for mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus), Robert T. Sugihara, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, and Cynthia G. Payne

The Role of Dog Population Management in Rabies Elimination—A Review of Current Approaches and Future Opportunities, Louise H. Taylor, Ryan M. Wallace, Deepashree Balaram, Joann M. Lindenmayer, Douglas C. Eckery, Beryl Mutonono-Watkiss, Ellie Parravani, and Louis H. Nel

Conclusions, Challenges, and Research Needs, Gary W. Witmer, William C. Pitt, and James C. Beasley

Introduction, Gary W. Witmer, William C. Pitt, and James C. Beasley

Ecology, Impacts, and Management of Invasive Rodents in the United States, Gary W. Witmer and Aaron B. Shiels


Determination of 20, 25-diazacholesterol in avian matrices by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, Benjamin G. Abbo, Laura E. Hulslander, and David A. Goldade

Reprint of: CYP1A protein expression and catalytic activity in double-crested cormorants experimentally exposed to deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 oil, Courtney R. Alexander, Michael J. Hooper, Dave Cacela, Kim D. Smelker, Caleshia S. Calvin, Karen M. Dean, Steve J. Bursian, Fred L. Cunningham, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Katherine E. Horak, John P. Isanhart, Jane Link, Susan A. Shriner, and Céline A.J. Godard-Codding

Can we save large carnivores without losing large carnivore science?, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Henrik Andrén, Guy Ballard, Luigi Boitani, Richard M. Engeman, Peter J. S. Fleming, Adam T. Ford, Peter M. Haswell, Rafal Kowalczyk, John D. C. Linnell, L. David Mech, and Daniel M. Parker

Large carnivore science: non-experimental studies are useful, but experiments are better, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Henrik Andrén, Guy Ballard, Luigi Boitani, Richard M. Engeman, Peter J. S. Fleming, Adam T. Ford, Peter M. Haswell, Rafal Kowalczyk, John D. C. Linnell, L. David Mech, and Daniel M. Parker

Wetland Bird Abundance and Safety Implications for Military Aircraft Operations, Kent Andersson, Craig A. Davis, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Jason R. Heinen

Frightening Devices, Michael L. Avery and Scott J. Werner

Novel and current rodenticides for pocket gopher Thomomys spp. management in vineyards: what works?, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, and Gary W. Witmer

Panmixia and Limited Interspecific Introgression in Coyotes (Canis latrans) from West Virginia and Virginia, USA, Justin H. Bohling, Lauren L. Mastro, Jennifer R. Adams, Eric M. Gese, Sheldon F. Owen, and Lisette P. Waits

Using resident-based hazing programs to reduce human–coyote conflicts in urban environments, Mary Ann Bonnell and Stewart W. Breck

Evaluating lethal and nonlethal management options for urban coyotes, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon A. Poessel, and Mary Ann Bonnell

Reprint of: Overview of avian toxicity studies for the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment, S. J. Bursian, C. R. Alexander, D. Cacela, Fred L. Cunningham, K. M. Dean, B. S. Dorr, C. K. Ellis, Céline A.J. Godard-Codding, C. G. Guglielmo, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, K. E. Harr, K. Healy, Michael J. Hooper, K. E. Horak, John P. Isanhart, L. V. Kennedy, J. E. Link, I. Maggini, J. K. Moye, C. R. Perez, C. A. Pritsos, Susan A. Shriner, K. A. Trust, and P. L. Tuttle

Influence of Precipitation and Crop Germination on Resource Selection by Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in Southwest Colorado, Emily M. Carrollo, Heather E. Johnson, Justin W. Fischer, Matthew Hammond, Patricia D. Dorsey, Charles Anderson, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and W. David Walter

Field-based evaluation of a male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage concentration method, J. C. Chandler, A. Pérez-Méndez, J. Paar III, M. M. Doolittle, B. Bisha, and L. D. Goodridge

Field-based evaluation of a male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage concentration method, J. C. Chandler, A. Pérez-Méndez, J. Paar III, M. M. Doolittle, B. Bisha, and L. D. Goodridge

A method for the improved detection of aerosolized influenza viruses and the male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage MS2, J. C. Chandler, J. W. Schaeffer, M. Davidson, S. L. Magzamen, A. Pérez-Méndez, S. J. Reynolds, L. D. Goodridge, J. Volckens, A. B. Franklin, S. A. Shriner, and B. Bisha

Effects of crop type and harvest on nest survival and productivity of dickcissels in semi-natural grasslands, Tara J. Conkling, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and James A. Martin

Development of methods for avian oil toxicity studies using the double crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), Fred L. Cunningham; Karen Dean; Katie C. Hanson-Dorr; Kendal Harr; Kate Healy; Katherine E. Horak; Jane Link; Susan A. Shriner; Steve J. Bursian; and Brian S, Dorr

Impact of body condition on influenza A virus infection dynamics in mallards following a secondary exposure, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Colleen T. Webb, Kenneth R. Wilson, Kevin T. Bentler, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Alan B. Franklin, and Susan A. Shriner

Estimating population density for disease risk assessment: The importance of understanding the area of influence of traps using wild pigs as an example, Amy J. Davis, Bruce Leland, Michael Bodenchuk, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Kim M. Pepin

Changes in white cell estimates and plasma chemistry measurements following oral or external dosing of double-crested cormorants, Phalacocorax auritus, with artificially weathered MC252 oil, Karen M. Dean, Steven J. Bursian, Dave Cacela, Michael W. Carney, Fred L. Cunningham, Brian Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Kate A. Healy, Katherine E. Horak, Jane E. Link, Ian Lipton, Andrew K. McFadden, Moira A. McKernan, and Kendal E. Harr

Changes in white cell estimates and plasma chemistry measurements following oral or external dosing of double-crested cormorants, Phalacocorax auritus, with artificially weathered MC252 oil, Karen M. Dean, Steven J. Bursian, Dave Cacela, Michael W. Carney, Fred L. Cunningham, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Kate A. Healy, Katherine E. Horak, Jane E. Link, Ian Lipton, Andrew K. McFadden, Moira A. McKernan, and Kendal E. Harr

Testing of an oral dosing technique for double-crested cormorants, Phalacocorax auritus, laughing gulls, Leucophaeus atricilla, homing pigeons, Columba livia, and western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, with artificially weather MC252 oil, Karen M. Dean, Dave Cacela, Michael W. Carney, F. L. Cunningham, C. Ellis, A. R. Gerson, C. G. Guglielmo, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, K. E. Harr, Katherine A. Healy, Katherine E. Horak, John P. Isanhart, L. V. Kennedy, J. E. Link, I. Lipton, Andrew K. McFadden, J. K. Moye, C. R. Perez, C. A. Pritsos, Karen L. Pritsos, Thivanka Muthumalage, S. A. Shriner, and S. J. Bursian

Can experience reduce collisions between birds and vehicles?, T. L. DeVault, T. W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, S. L. Lima, M. A. Martinez, and E. Fernandez-Juricic

Scavenger removal of bird carcasses at simulated wind turbines: Does carcass type matter?, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, Kimberly E. Linnell, Dale W. Sparks, and James C. Beasley

Education is not a panacea for reducing human–black bear conflicts, Alia M. Dietsch, Kristina M. Slagle, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Stewart W. Breck, and Lana M. Ciarniello

The Rise of Double-Crested Cormorants, Brian S. Dorr and Dave Fielder

Double-Crested Cormorants: Too Much of a Good Thing?, Brian S. Dorr and David G. Fielder

Using pentosidine and hydroxyproline to predict age and sex in an avian species, Brian S. Dorr, Randal S. Stahl, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, and Carol A. Furcolow

Control of invasive rats on islands and priorities for future action, Quiterie Duron, Aaron B. Shiels, and Eric Vidal

Use of fecal volatile organic compound analysis to discriminate between nonvaccinated and BCG-Vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal S. Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Jacek A. Koziel

Inventory of wildlife use of mortality pits as feeding sites: implications of pathogen exposure, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner, Hailey E. McLean, Lauren Petersen, and J. Jeffrey Root

Management and modeling approaches for controlling raccoon rabies: The road to elimination, Stacey A. Elmore, Richard B. Chipman, Dennis Slate, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Amy T. Gilbert

Study design concepts for inferring functional roles of mammalian top predators, Richard M. Engeman, Lee R. Allen, and Benjamin L. Allen

Prevalence of feral swine disturbance at important archaeological sites over a large landscape in Florida, Richard M. Engeman, Joseph S. Meyer, and John B. Allen

Addressing the Gender Gap in Distinguished Speakers at Professional Ecology Conferences, Cooper M. Farr, Sara P. Bombaci, Travis Gallo, Anna M. Mangan, Hannah L. Riedl, Lani T. Stinson, Kate Wilkins, Drew E. Bennett, Theresa Nogeire-McRae, and Liba Pejchar

Restricted cross-scale habitat selection by American beavers, Robert A. Francis, Jimmy D. Taylor, Eric Dibble, Bronson Strickland, Vanessa M. Petro, Christine Easterwood, and Guiming Wang

Space use and social ecology of coyotes (Canis latrans) in a high-elevation ecosystem: relative stability in a changing environment, Suzanne J. Gifford, Eric M. Gese, and Robert R. Parmenter

Movement of Hypophthalmichthys DNA in the Illinois River Watershed by the Double-Crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), Michael P. Guilfoyle, Heather L. Farrington, Richard F. Lance, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Brian S. Dorr, and Richard A. Fischer

Seasonal effects of wind conditions on migration patterns of soaring American white pelican, Javier Gutierrez Illan, Guiming Wang, Fred L. Cunningham, and D. Tommy King

Seasonal effects of wind conditions on migration patterns of soaring American white pelican, Javier Gutierrez Illan, Guiming Wang, Fred L. Cunningham, and D. Tommy King

Weathered MC252 crude oil-induced anemia and abnormal erythroid morphology in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) with light microscopic and ultrastructural description of Heinz bodies, K. E. Harr, Fred L. Cunningham, Chris A. Pritsos, Karen L. Pritsos, Thivanka Muthumalage, Brian S. Dorr, Katherine E. Horak, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Karen M. Dean, Dave Cacela, Andrew K. McFadden, Jane E. Link, Katherine A. Healy, Pete Tuttle, and Steven J. Bursian

Organ weights and histopathology of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) dosed orally or dermally with artificially weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 crude oil, K. E. Harr, Drury R. Reavill, Steven J. Bursian, Dave Cacela, Fred L. Cunningham, Karen M. Dean, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Kate Healy, Katherine E. Horak, Jane E. Link, Susan A. Shriner, and Robert E. Schmidt

Dermal exposure to weathered MC252 crude oil results in echocardiographically identifiable systolic myocardial dysfunction in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), K. E. Harr, M. Rishniw, T. L. Rupp, D. Cacela, K. M. Dean, B. S. Dorr, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, K. Healy, K. E. Horak, J. E. Link, D. Reavill, S. J. Bursian, and Fred L. Cunningham

Fine-scale assessment of home ranges and activity patterns for resident black vultures (Coragyps atratus) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), Amanda E. Holland, Michael E. Byrne, A. Lawrence Bryan, Travis L. DeVault, Olin E. Rhodes, and James C. Beasley

Picky eaters are rare: DNA-based blood meal analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species from the United States, Matthew W. Hopken, Bonnie M. Ryan, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Toxic effects of orally ingested oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill on laughing gulls, Katherine E. Horak, Steven J. Bursian, C. K. Ellis, K. M. Dean, J. E. Link, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, F. L. Cunningham, K. E. Harr, C. A. Pritsos, Karen L. Pritsos, Katherine A. Healy, Dave Cacela, and S. A. Shriner

Bird use of grain fields and implications for habitat management at airports, Raymond B. Iglay, Bruce N. Buckingham, Thomas W. Seamans, James A. Martin, Bradley F. Blackwell, Jerrold L. Belant, and Travis L. DeVault

An evaluation of the use of pentosidine as a biomarker for ageing turtles, John B. Iverson, Randal S. Stahl, Carol Furcolow, and Fred Kraus

High prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) on eastern Hawai`i Island: A closer look at life cycle traits and patterns of infection in wild rats (Rattus spp.), Susan I. Jarvi, Stefano Quarta, Steven Jacquier, Kathleen Howe, Denzi Bicakci, Crystal Dasalla, Noelle Lovesy, Kirsten Snook, Robert McHugh, and Chris N. Niebuhr

Human development and climate affect hibernation in a large carnivore with implications for human–carnivore conflicts, Heather E. Johnson, David L. Lewis, Tana L. Verzuh, Cody F. Wallace, Rebecca M. Much, Lyle K. Willmarth, and Stewart W. Breck

Quantifying drivers of wild pig movement across multiple spatial and temporal scales, Shannon L. Kay, Justin W. Fischer, Andrew J. Monaghan, James C. Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Tyler A. Campbell, Susan M. Cooper, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Steven B. Hartley, John C. Kilgo, Samantha M. Wisely, A. Christy Wyckoff, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Kim M. Pepin

Effects of scale of movement, detection probability, and true population density on common methods of estimating population density, David A. Keiter, Amy J. Davis, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Fred L. Cunningham, John C. Kilgo, Kim M. Pepin, and James C. Beasley

Development of known-fate survival monitoring techniques for juvenile wild pigs (Sus scrofa), David A. Keiter, John C. Kilgo, Mark A. Vukovich, Fred L. Cunningham, and James C. Beasley

Temporal Development of Gut Microbiota in Triclocarban Exposed Pregnant and Neonatal Rats, Rebekah C. Kennedy, Russell R. Fling, Michael S. Robeson, Arnold M. Saxton, Robert L. Donnell, John L. Darcy, David A. Bemis, Jiang Liu, Ling Zhao, and Jiangang CHen

Winter and Summer Home Ranges of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) Captured at Loafing Sites in the Southeastern United States, D. Tommy King, Justin W. Fischer, Bronson K. Strickland, W. David Walter, Fred L. Cunningham, and Guiwang Wang

Advances and Environmental Conditions of Spring Migration Phenology of American White Pelicans, D. Tommy King, Guiming Wang, Zhiqiang Yang, and Justin W. Fischer

Evaluating the influence of water developments on the demography and spatial ecology of a rare, desert-adapted carnivore: the kit fox (Vulpes macrotis), Bryan M. Kluever and Eric M. Gese

Influence of free water availability on a desert carnivore and herbivore, Bryan M. Kluever, Eric M. Gese, and Steven J. Dempsey

The Future of Blackbird Management Research, Page E. Klug

An assessment of radiative heating as a thermal treatment for invasive snakes in cargo, Fred Kraus, Randal S. Stahl, and William Pitt

Attractants for wild pigs: current use, availability, needs, and future potential, Michael J. Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Justin W. Fischer, Joe M. Halseth, Eric H. VanNatta, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Reoccurrence of Avian Influenza A(H5N2) Virus Clade in Wild Birds, Alaska, USA, 2016, Dong-Hun Lee, Mia K. Torchetti, Mary Lea Killian, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and David E. Swayne

History of Regulations, Policy, and Research Related to Conflicts between Blackbirds and People, George M. Linz, Michael L. Avery, and Richard A. Dolbeer

Strategies for Evading Blackbird Damage, George M. Linz and Page E. Klug

Ecology and Management of Red-Winged Blackbirds, George M. Linz, Page E. Klug, and Richard A. Dolbeer

The roles of habitat and intraguild predation by coyotes on the spatial dynamics of kit foxes, Robert C. C. Lonsinger, Eric M. Gese, Larissa L. Bailey, and Lisette P. Waits

Uncovering behavioural states from animal activity and site fidelity patterns, Peter J. Mahoney and Julie K. Young

Bird use of organic apple orchards: Frugivory, pest control and implications for production, Anna M. Mangan, Liba Pejchar, and Scott J. Werner

Ante-mortem detection of chronic wasting disease in recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay: A blinded collaborative study, Sireesha Manne, Naveen Kondru, Tracy Nichols, Aaron Lehmkuhl, Bruce Thomsen, Rodger Main, Patrick Halbur, Somak Dutta, and Anumantha G. Kanthasamy

US feral swine were exposed to both avian and swine influenza A viruses, Brigitte E. Martin, Hailiang Sun, Margaret Carrel, Fred L. Cunningham, John A. Baroch, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Sean G. Young, Brandon S. Schmit, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Mark W. Lutman, Kerri Pedersen, Kelly Lager, Andrew S. Bowman, Richard D. Slemons, David R. Smith, Thomas J. Deliberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Diversity and phylogenetic relationships among Bartonella strains from Thai bats, Clifton D. McKee, Michael Y. Kosoy, Ying Bai, Lynn M. Osikowicz, Richard Franka, Amy T. Gilbert, Sumalee Boonmar, Charles E. Rupprecht, and Leonard Peruski

Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination, L. David Mech, Cheryl S. Asa, Margaret Callahan, Bruce W. Christensen, Fran Smith, and Julie K. Young

Cross-species transmission potential between wild pigs, livestock, poultry, wildlife, and humans: implications for disease risk management in North America, Ryan S. Miller, Steven J. Sweeney, Chris Slootmaker, Daniel A. Grear, Paul A. Di Salvo, Deborah Kiser, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Towards Canine Rabies Elimination in Cebu, Philippines: Assessment of Health Economic Data, L. M. Miranda, M. E. Miranda, B. Hatch, R. Deray, S. A. Shwiff, M. C. Roces, and C. E. Rupprecht

Rabies Virus Antibodies from Oral Vaccination as a Correlate of Protection against Lethal Infection in Wildlife, Susan M. Moore, Amy Gilbert, Ad Vos, Conrad M. Freuling, Christine K. Ellis, Jeannette Kliemt, and Thomas Müller

Evaluation of antibody response to an adjuvanted hapten-protein vaccine as a potential inhibitor of sexual maturation for farmed Atlantic salmon, Darcy S.O. Mora, Mo D. Salman, Christopher A. Myrick, Jack C. Rhyan, Lowell A. Miller, Ellen Marie Sætre, and Douglas C. Eckery