National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."

2016

Use of claims data to estimate annual cervical cancer screening percentages in Portland metropolitan area, Oregon, Nasreen Abdullah, Robert S. Laing, Susan Hariri, Collette M. Young, and Sean Schafer

Supplementary feeding and endangered avian scavengers: benefits, caveats, and controversies, Ainara Cortés- Avizanda, Guillermo Blanco, Travis L. Devault, Anil Markandya, Munir Z Virani, Joseph Brandt, and José A Donázar

Cholecalciferol plus diphacinone baits for vole control: a novel approach to a historic problem, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, and Gary W. Witmer

Plant community shifts caused by feral swine rooting devalue Florida rangeland, Brittany Bankovich, Elizabeth Boughton, Raoul Boughton, Michael L. Avery, and Samantha M. Wisely

Report to the Chicago Park District on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2015 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, M.L. Bloomquist, J.W. Hartmann, C.K. Pullins, T.G. Guerrant, S.F. Beckerman, and R.M. Engeman

Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?, Angela Bosco-Lauth, Richard A. Bowen, and ]. Jeffrey Root

Aquaculture Depredation by Double-Crested Cormorants Breeding in Eastern North America, Elizabeth C. Craig, D. Tommy King, Jed P. Sparks, and Paul D. Curtis

Identification of Off Airport Interspecific Avian Hazards to Aircraft, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, and Jerrold L. Belant

Reproductive Characteristics of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the Eastern United States: Demographic Information for an Intensely Managed Species, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Scott C. Barras, and Travis L. DeVault

The effects of habitat, climate, and Barred Owls on long-term demography of Northern Spotted Owls, Katie M. Dugger; Eric D. Forsman; Alan B. Franklin; Raymond J. Davis; Gary C. White; Carl J. Schwarz; Kenneth P. Burnham; James D. Nichols; James E. Hines; Charles B. Yackulic; Paul F. Doherty, Jr.; Larissa Bailey; Darren A. Clark; Steven H. Ackers; Lawrence S. Andrews; Benjamin Augustine; Brian L. Biswell; Jennifer Blakesley; Peter C. Carlson; Matthew J. Clement; Lowell V. Diller; Elizabeth M. Glenn; Adam Green; Scott A. Gremel; Dale R. Herter; J. Mark Higley; Jeremy Hobson; Rob B. Horn; Kathryn P. Huyvaert; Christopher McCafferty; Trent McDonald; Kevin McDonnell; Gail S. Olson; Janice A. Reid; Jeremy Rockweit; Viviana Ruiz; Jessica Saenz; and Stan G. Sovern

AMERICAN ROBINS (TURDUS MIGRATORIUS) AND CEDAR WAXWINGS (BOMBYCILLA CEDRORUM) VARY IN USE OF CULTIVATED CHERRY ORCHARDS, RACHAEL A. EATON, Catherine A. Lindell, Jeffrey Homan, George M. Linz, and Brian A. Maurer

Economic impacts of bird damage and management in U.S. sweet cherry production, J. L. Elser, A. Anderson, C. A. Lindell, N. Dalsted, A. Bernasek, and S. A. Shwiff

Photographic estimation of wild boar damage to alpine grazing pastures in the Carpathian Mountains of central Romania, Richard Engeman, Renate Cattaruzza, Marco Cattaruzza, and Justin Fischer

Defending against disparate marine turtle nest predators: nesting success benefits from eradicating invasive feral swine and caging nests from raccoons, Richard M. Engeman, David Addison, and J. C. Griffin

Guiding the management of an agricultural pest: Indexing abundance of California meadow voles in artichoke fields, Richard M. Engeman, Roger A. Baldwin, and Denise I. Stetson

Monitoring cryptic amphibians and reptiles in a Florida state park, Richard Engeman, Walter E. Meshaka Jr., Robert Severson, Mary Ann Severson, Greg Kaufman, N. Paige Groninger, and Henry T. Smith

Chapter 8 Keeping Wildlife Out of Your Food: Mitigation and Control Strategies to Reduce the Transmission Risk of Food-Borne Pathogens, Alan B. Franklin and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Evaluation of an Avian Radar System in a Midwestern Landscape, Michael B. Gerringer, Steven L. Lima, and Travis L. DeVault

Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captiveadult female coyotes (Canis latrans), Eric M. Gese, Beth M. Roberts, and Frederick F. Knowlton

Identification of kill sites from GPS clusters for jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southern Pantanal, Brazil, Eric M. Gese, Patricia Terletzky, and Sandra M. C. Cavalcanti

Molecular forensics in avian conservation: a DNA‑based approach for identifying mammalian predators of ground‑nesting birds and eggs, Matthew W. Hopken, Elizabeth K. Orning, Julie K. Young, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

High Rates of Detection of Clade 2.3.4.4 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in Wild Birds in the Pacific Northwest During the Winter of 2014–15, Hon S. Ip, Robert J. Dusek, Barbara Bodenstein, Mia Kim Torchetti, Paul DeBruyn, Kristin Mansfield, Thomas J. Deliberto, and Jonathan M. Sleeman

Is there a future for genome-editing technologies in conservation?, J. A. Johnson, R. Altwegg, D. M. Evans, J. G. Ewen, I. J. Gordon, N. Pettorelli, and J. K. Young

Estimates of Small Indian Mongoose Densities: Implications for Rabies Management, Shylo R. Johnson, Are R. Berentsen, Christine Ellis, Amy Davis, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Optimization of Scat Detection Methods for a Social Ungulate, the Wild Pig, and Experimental Evaluation of Factors Affecting Detection of Scat, David A. Keiter, Fred L. Cunningham, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Brian J. Irwin, and James C. Beasley

Outbreak of H7N8 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Turkeys with Spontaneous Mutation to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Mary Lea Killian, Mia Kim Torchetti, Nichole Hines, Sam Yingst, Thomas J. Deliberto, and Dong-Hun Lee

Development of artificial bait for brown treesnake suppression, Bruce A. Kimball, Scott A. Sterling, Thomas W. McAuliffe, Randal S. Stahl, Rafael A. Garcia, and William C. Pitt

Alterations of the volatile metabolome in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, Bruce A. Kimball, Donald A. Wilson, and Daniel W. Weason

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Generation of Novel Reassortants, United States, 2014–2015, Dong-Hun Lee, Justin Bahl, Mia Kim Torchetti, Mary Lea Killian, Hon S. Ip, Thomas J. Deliberto, and David E. Swayne

Plants, prions and possibilities: Current understanding and significance of prion uptake into plants, Tracy A. Nichols

Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease, Tracy A. Nichols, Terry R. Spraker, Thomas Gidlewski, Bruce Cummings, Dana Hill, Qingzhong Kong, and Aru Balachandran

Disease-emergence dynamics and control in a socially-structured wildlife species, Kim M. Pepin and Kurt C. VerCauteren

A Noninvasive Method to Detect Mexican Wolves and Estimate Abundance, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Chip.A. Cariappa, Dyan J. Straughan, Melissa Neubaum, Margaret Dwire, Paul R. Krausman, Warren B. Ballard, David L. Bergman, and Stewart W. Breck

Integrating early detection with DNA barcoding: species identification of a nonnative monitor lizard (Squamata: Varanidae) carcass in Mississippi, U.S.A., Robert N. Reed, Matthew W. Hopken, David Steensen, Bryan G. Falk, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Susceptibility of rock doves to low-pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, Scott R. Stopak, Heather J. Sullivan, Kaci K. VanDalen, and Alan B. Franklin

Evaluation of estimation quality of a general paradigm for indexing animal abundance when observations are counts, Benjamin Shulman, Brandie D. Wagner, Gary K. Grunwald, and Richard M. Engeman

A benefit-cost analysis decision framework for mitigation of disease transmission at the wildlife–livestock interface, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Steven J. Sweeney, Julie L. Elser, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew Farnsworth, Pauline Nol, Steven S. Shwiff, and Aaron M. Anderson

Bait Preference of Free-Ranging Feral Swine for Delivery of a Novel Toxicant, Nathan P. Snow, Joseph M. Halseth, Michael J. Lavelle, Thomas E. Hanson, Chad R. Blass, Justin A. Foster, Simon T. Humphrys, Linton D. Staples, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs, Brian E. Washburn, Ryan M. Swearingin, Craig K. Pullins, and Matthew E. Rice

No filters, no fridges: a method for preservation of water samples for eDNA analysis, Kelly E. Williams, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Retention time of chlorophacinone in black-tailed prairie dogs informs secondary hazards from a prairie dog rodenticide bait, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton

Evaluation of Harvest Indices for Monitoring Cougar Survival and Abundance, Michael L. Wolfe, Eric M. Gese, Pat Terletzky, David C. Stoner, and Lise M. Aubry

2015

Evaluating and validating abundance monitoring methods in the absence of populations of known size: review and application to a passive tracking index, Lee R. Allen and Richard M. Engeman

Modeling the cost of bird strikes to US civil aircraft, Aaron Anderson, David S. Carpenter, Michael J. Begier, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents, A. Anderson and S. A. Shwiff

Impacts of colonial waterbirds on vegetation and potential restoration of island habitats, Christopher R. Ayers, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Sadie O'Dell, Charles D. Lovell, Michael L. Jones, Jason R. Suckow, and Brian S. Dorr

Impact Of Capture And Transportation Methods On Survival Of Small Rodents During Relocation Events, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, Holly E. Jantz, and Gary W. Witmer

A Behaviorally-Explicit Approach for Delivering Vaccine Baits to Mesopredators to Control Epizootics in Fragmented Landscapes, James C. Beasley, Todd C. Atwood, Michael E. Byrne, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Shylo R. Johnson, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Ecological Role of Vertebrate Scavengers, James C. Beasley, Zach H. Olson, and Travis L. Devault

Evaluation of Rhodamine B as a Biomarker for Assessing Bait Acceptance in Wild Pigs, James Beasley; Sarah C. Webster; Olin E. RHodes, Jr.; and Fred L. Cunningham

Boa Constrictor, Are R. Berentsen, Juan G. Garcia-Cancel, Edna M. Diaz-Negron, Oscar A. Diaz-Marrero, Alberto R. Puente-Rolón, Robert N. Reed, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Exposure to Rabies in Small Indian Mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) from Two Regions in Puerto Rico, Are R. Berentsen, Shylo R. Johnson, Amy T. Gilbert, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Capillaria hepatica infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) on Diego Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory, Are R. Berentsen, Scott Vogt, Antenor N. Guzman, Daniel S. Vice, William C. Pitt, Aaron B. Shiels, and Terry R. Spraker

Seasonal Shifts in Diet and Gut Microbiota of the American Bison (Bison bison), Gaddy T. Bergmann, Joseph Craine, Michael S. Robeson, and Noah Fierer

Serological Investigation of Heartland Virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) Exposure in Wild and Domestic Animals Adjacent to Human Case Sites in Missouri 2012–2013, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, Nicholas A. Panella, J. Jeffrey Root, Tom Gidlewski, R. Ryan Lash, Jessica R. Harmon, Kristen L. Burkhalter, Marvin S. Godsey, Harry M. Savage, William L. Nicholson, Nicholas Komar, and Aaron C. Brault

Effects of mountain beaver management and thinning on 15-year-old Douglas fir growth and survival, Dan L. Campbell, Richard M. Engeman, and James P. Farley

Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates associated with starling–livestock interactions, James C. Carlson, Doreene R. Hyatt, Kevin Bentler, Anna M. Mangan, Michael Russell, Antoinette J. Piaggio, and George M. Linz

Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella enterica transmission associated with starling–livestock interactions, James C. Carlson, Doreene R. Hyatt, Jeremy W. Ellis, David R. Pipkin, Anna M. Mangan, Michael Russell, Denise S. Bolte, Richard M. Engeman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and George M. Linz

Assessment of variation of nest survival for grassland birds due to method of nest discovery, Tara J. Conkling, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. Devault, Guiming Wang, and James A. Martin

Spatiotemporal Dynamics in Identification of Aircraft–Bird Strikes, Tara J. Conkling, James A. Martin, Jerrold L. Belant, and Travis L. Devault

Carnivore incidents with U.S. civil aircraft, Alexander R. Crain, Jerrold L. Belant, and Travis L. DeVault

Assessment of Population Structure of Coyotes in East-Central Alabama using Microsatellite DNA, Dalinda L. Damm, James B. Armstrong, Wendy M. Arjo, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Cowbird responses to aircraft with lights tuned to their eyes: Implications for bird–aircraft collisions, Megan S. Doppler, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Influence of Simulated Double-crested Cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, Predation on Multiple-batch Production of Channel Catfish,Ictalurus punctatus, Brian S. Dorr and Carole R. Engle

Shared genetic diversity across the global invasive range of the monk parakeet suggests a common restricted geographic origin and the possibility of convergent selection, Pim Edelaar, Severine Roques, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Michael L. Avery, Michael A. Russello, Juan C. Senar, Timothy F. Wright, Martina Carrete, and José L. Tella

LEPTODEIRA SEPTENTRIONALIS (Northern Cat-eyed Snake), Richard M. Engeman and Carrie Engeman

Spatially Explicit Modeling of Blackbird Abundance in the Prairie Pothole Region, Greg M. Forcey, Wayne E. Thogmartin, George M. Linz, Patrick C. McKann, and Shawn M. Crimmins

Tick-borne Diseases in Syntopic Populations of Fallow Deer (Dama dama) and Axis Deer (Axis axis) in Northern Mexico, Zeferino García-Vázquez, J. Alfonso Ortega-S., Antonio Cantu-Covarruvias, Juan Mosqueda, David G. Hewitt, Randall W. DeYoung, Tyler A. Campbell, and Fred C. Bryant

Managing hybridization of a recovering endangered species: The red wolf Canis rufus as a case study, Eric M. Gese, Fred F. Knowlton, Jennifer R. Adams, Karen Beck, Todd K. Fuller, Dennis L. Murray, Todd D. Steury, Michael K. Stoskopf, Will T. Waddell, and Lisette P. Waits

Using the “placeholder” concept to reduce genetic introgression of an endangered carnivore, Eric M. Gese and Patricia A. Terletzky

Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala, Amy Gilbert, Lauren Greenberg, David Moran, Marlon Alvarado, Daniel L. Garcia, and Leonard Peruski

Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercialmodified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala, Amy Gilbert, Lauren Greenberg, David Moran, Danilo Alvarez, Marlon Alvarado, Daniel L. Garcia, and Leonard Peruski

RABIES SURVEILLANCE AMONG BATS IN TENNESSEE, USA, 1996–2010, Amy T. Gilbert, Gary F. McCracken, Lorinda L. Sheeler, Lisa I. Muller, Dorcas O'Rourke, William J. Kelch, and John C. New Jr.

Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls, Jianhua Guo, Ian Tizard, John Baroch, H L. Shivaprasad, and Susan L. Payne

Erratum: The socioecology of Monk Parakeets: Insights into parrot social complexity, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Michael L. Avery, and Timothy F. Wright

The effect of social context and social scale on the perception of relationships in monk parakeets, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Darlene J. John, Tiffany L. Mcintosh, Michael L. Avery, and Timonthy F. Wright

Invaded Invaders: Infection of Invasive Brown Treesnakes on Guam by an Exotic Larval Cestode with a Life Cycle Comprised of Non-Native Hosts, Elden T. Holldorf, Shane R. Siers, Jonathan Q. Richmond, Page E. Klug, and Robert N. Reed

Molecular assessment of translocation and management of an endangered subspecies of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Matthew W. Hopken, Tod M. Lum, Paul M. Meyers, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Increased diphacinone and chlorophacinone metabolism in previously exposed wild caught voles, Microtus californicus, Katherine E. Horak, Steven F. Volker, and Christopher M. Campton

Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Rocio Crespo, Paul Kohrs, Paul DeBruyn, Kristin G. Mansfield, Timothy Baszler, Lyndon Badcoe, Barbara Bodenstein, Valerie Shearn-Bochsler, Mary Lea Killian, Janice C. Pedersen, Nichole Hines, Thomas Gidlewski, Thomas Deliberto, and Jonathan M. Sleeman

Human Disturbance and the Physiological Response of Elk in Eastern Washington, D. S. Jachowski, S. McCorquodale, Brian E. Washburn, and Joshua J. Millspaugh

Shifting perceptions of risk and reward: Dynamic selection for human development by black bears in the western United States, H. E. Johnson, S. W. Breck, S. Baruch-Mordo, D. L. Lewis, C. W. Lackey, K. R. Wilson, J. Broderick, J. S. Mao, and J. P. Beckmann

Multi-Trophic Level Feeding Interactions Among Two Native and Two Non-Native Species: Implications for the Endangered Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma bishopi), Kelly C. Jones, Brandon K. Rincon, Thomas A. Gorman, Carola A. Haas, and Richard M. Engeman

POTENTIAL FOR GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) TO TRANSMIT A VIRULENT STRAIN OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA AMONG CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) CULTURE PONDS, Madison M. Jubirt, Larry A. Hanson, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Lorelei Ford, Scott Lemmons, Paul Fioranelli, and Fred L. Cunningham

Best practice guidelines for rat eradication on tropical islands, B. Keitt, R. Griffiths, S. Boudjelas, K. Broome, S. Cranwell, J. Millett, W. Pitt, and A. Samaniego-Herrera

Subtype-specific influenza A virus antibodies in Canada geese (Branta canadensis), Whitney M. Kistler, David E. Stallknecht, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Kyle Van Why, and Michael J. Yabsley

Influenza A Virus H5–specific Antibodies in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the USA, Whitney M. Kistler, David E. Stallknecht, Camille Lebarbenchon, Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Randy Mickley, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Michael J. Yabsley

Chemical repellents appear non-useful for eliciting exit of brown tree snakes from cargo, Fred Kraus, Randal Stahl, and William Pitt

Thermal fumigation provides a simple and effective solution for sanitizing cargo from invasive snakes, Fred Kraus, Randal Stahl, and William Pitt

Food Habits of Adult Male White-Tailed Deer Determined by Camera Collars, Michael J. Lavelle, Chad R. Blass, Justin W. Fischer, Scott E. Hygnstrom, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Deer response to exclusion from stored cattle feed in Michigan, USA, Michael J. Lavelle, Henry Campa III, Kyle LeDoux, Patrick J. Ryan, Justin W. Fischer, Kim M. Pepin, Chad R. Blass, Michael P. Glow, Scott E. Hygnstrom, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Effects of barred owl (Strix varia) range expansion on Haemoproteus parasite assemblage dynamics and transmission in barred and northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), Krista E. Lewicki, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Lowell V. Diller, and Alan B. Franklin

Animal reactions to oncoming vehicles: a conceptual review, Steven L. Lima, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Limitations of population suppression for protecting crops from bird depredation: A review, George M. Linz, Enrique H. Bucher, Sonia B. Canavelli, Ethel Rodriguez, and Michael L. Avery

Sunflower Bird Pests, George M. Linz and James J. Hanzel

Evaluating the Reliability of Field Identification and Morphometric Classifications for Carnivore Scats Confirmed with Genetic Analysis, Robert C. Lonsinger, Eric M. Gese, and Lisette P. Waits

Network analysis of host–virus communities in bats and rodents reveals determinants of cross-species transmission, Angela D. Luis, Thomas J. O'Shea, David T.S. Hayman, James L.N. Wood, Andrew A. Cunningham, Amy T. Gilbert, James N. Mills, and Colleen T. Webb

Modeling and Mapping the Probability of Occurrence of Invasive Wild Pigs across the Contiguous United States, Meredith L. McClure, Christopher L. Burdett, Matthew L. Farnsworth, Mark W. Lutman, David M. Theobald, Philip D. Riggs, Daniel A. Grear, and Ryan S. Miller

WEST NILE VIRUS ANTIBODY DECAY RATE IN FREE-RANGING BIRDS, Eileen M. McKee, Edward D. Walker, Tavis K. Anderson, Uriel D. Kitron, Jeffrey D. Brawn, Bethany L. Krebs, Christina Newman, Marilyn O. Ruiz, Rebecca S. Levine, Mary E. Carrington, Robert G. McLean, Tony L. Goldberg, and Gabriel L. Hamer

Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies and exposure to bats in two rural communities in Guatemala, David Moran, Patricia Juliao, Danilo Alvarez, Kim A. Lindblade, James A. Ellison, Amy T. Gilbert, Brett Petersen, Charles Rupprecht, and Sergio Recuenco