National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."

2015

Evaluating and validating abundance monitoring methods in the absence of populations of known size: review and application to a passive tracking index, Lee R. Allen and Richard M. Engeman

A Behaviorally-Explicit Approach for Delivering Vaccine Baits to Mesopredators to Control Epizootics in Fragmented Landscapes, James C. Beasley, Todd C. Atwood, Michael E. Byrne, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Shylo R. Johnson, and Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercialmodified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala, Amy Gilbert, Lauren Greenberg, David Moran, Danilo Alvarez, Marlon Alvarado, Daniel L. Garcia, and Leonard Peruski

The effect of social context and social scale on the perception of relationships in monk parakeets, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Darlene J. John, Tiffany L. Mcintosh, Michael L. Avery, and Timonthy F. Wright

Animal reactions to oncoming vehicles: a conceptual review, Steven L. Lima, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Anticoagulant Rodenticide Exposure and Toxicosis in Coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Sharon A. Poessel, Stewart W. Breck, Karen A. Fox, and Eric M. Gese

Is anthropogenic cougar mortality compensated by changes in natural mortality in Utah? Insight from long-term studies, Michael L. Wolfe, David N. Koons, David C. Stoner, Patricia Terletzky, Eric M. Gese, David M. Choate, and Lise M. Aubry

2014

Sympatric prey responses to lethal top-predator control: predator manipulation experiments, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Does lethal control of top-predators release mesopredators? A re-evaluation of three Australian case studies, Benjamin L. Allen, Geoff Lundie-Jenkins, Neil D. Burrows, Richard M. Engeman, Peter J.S. Fleming, and Luke K.-P. Leung

The Short-Term Effects of a Routine Poisoning Campaign on the Movements and Detectability of a Social Top-Predator., B l. Allen, R. M. Engeman, and L. K-P. Leung

Forecasting the spread of raccoon rabies using a purpose-specific group decision-making process., Aaron M. Anderson, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Richard B. Chipman, Todd C. Atwood, Tyler Cozzens, Frank Fillo, Robert Hale, Brody Hatch, Joanne Maki, Olin E. Rhodes, Erin E. Rees, Charles E. Rupprecht, Rowland Tinline, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and Dennis Slate

Invasive black spiny-tailed iguanas (Ctenosaura similis) on Gasparilla Island, Florida, USA, Michael L. Avery, Eric A. Tillman, Conny Spurfeld, Richard M. Engeman, Kelin P. Maciejewski, Jessica D. Brown, and Emily A. Fetzer

Effectiveness of Rodenticides for Managing Invasive Roof Rats and Native Deer Mice in Orchards, Roger A. Baldwin, Niamh Quinn, David H. Davis, and Richard M. Engeman

Stochasticity in Natural Forage Production Affects Use of Urban Areas by Black Bears: Implications to Management of Human-Bear Conflicts, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Kenneth R. Wilson, David L. Lewis, John Broderick, Julie S. Mao, and Stewart W. Breck

Preference among 7 bait flavors delivered to domestic dogs in Arizona: Implications for oral rabies vaccination on the Navajo Nation, Are R. Berentsen, Scott C. Bender, David Bergman, Krista Hausig, and Kurt Vercauteren

Evaluation of 6 ONRAB Ultralite bait flavor matrices delivered to coyotes (Canis latrans): Implications for oral rabies vaccination, Are R. Berentsen, Stacey P. Brummer, Julie K. Young, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Bait matrix flavor preference by mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) in Puerto Rico: Implications for Oral Rabies Vaccination, Are R. Berentsen, Shylo R. Johnson, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Characteristics of White-Tailed Deer Visits to Cattle Farms: Implications for Disease Transmission at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface, Are R. Berentsen, Ryan S. Miller, Jennifer L. Malmberg, and Mike R. Dunbar

Longevity of Rodenticide Bait Pellets in a Tropical Environment Following a Rat Eradication Program, Are R. Berentsen, William C. Pitt, John D. Eisemann, and Richard M. Engeman

Large-Scale Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds throughout the United States, Sarah N. Bevins, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, John A. Baroch, Brandon S. Schmit, Dennis Kohler, Thomas Gidlewski, Dale L. Nolte, Seth R. Swafford, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Consequences Associated with the Recent Range Expansion of Nonnative Feral Swine, Sarah N. Bevins, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, Thomas Gidlewski, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

OSPREYS (PANDION HALIAETUS) IN THE 21ST CENTURY: POPULATIONS, MIGRATION, MANAGEMENT, AND RESEARCH PRIORITIES, Richard O. Bierregaard, Alan F. Poole, and Brian E. Washburn

Integrating mammalian hazards with management at U.S. civil airports: a case study., Kristin M. Biondi, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin, Travis L. DeVault, and Guiming Wang

White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger, Bradley F. Blackwelll, Thomas W. Seamans, and Travis L. DeVault

The Influence of Study Species Selection on Estimates of Pesticide Exposure in Free-Ranging Birds, Shannon Borges, Nimish B. Vyas, and Mary Christman

New species records and changes in abundance of waterfowl in northwest Greenland, K. K. Burnham, D. R. Sinnett, J. A. Johnson, J. L. Burnham, and J. A. Baroch

Calving location selection patterns of saiga antelope in Mongolia, B. Buuveibaatar, T. K. Fuller, J. K. Young, and J. Berger

Population Dynamics of Double-Crested Cormorants in Two Interior Breeding Areas, Jennifer E. Chastant, D. Tommy King, D.V. Chip Weseloh, and David J. Moore

Disease Risks ·Posed by Wild Birds Associated with Agricultural Landscapes, Larry Clark

The Chemical Senses in Birds, Larry Clark, Julie Hagelin, and Scott Werner

Incorporating Cold-Air Pooling into Downscaled Climate Models Increases Potential Refugia for Snow-Dependent Species within the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion, CA, Jennifer A. Curtis, Lorraine E. Flint, Alan L. Flint, Jessica D. Lundquist, Brian Hudgens, Erin E. Boydston, and Julie K. Young

EXPLORING THE ROLE OF OSPREYS IN EDUCATION, Rebecca Cushing and Brian E. Washburn

Effects of Vehicle Speed on Flight Initiation by Turkey Vultures: Implications for Bird-Vehicle Collisions, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, and Esteban Fernandez-Juricic

Influence of egg oiling on colony presence of ring-billed gulls, Travis L. DeVault, Paige M. Schmidt, Fred E. Pogmore, John Gobeille, Jerrold L. Belant, and Thomas W. Seamans

Bird Use of Solar Photovoltaic Installations at US Airports: Implications for Aviation Safety, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, Jason A. Schmidt, Jerrold L. Belant, Bradley F. Blackwell, Nicole Mooers, Laura A. Tyson, and Lolita VanPelt

Geographic segregation and evidence of density-dependent changes in sex ratios in an abundant colonial waterbird, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Travis L. DeVault, Alban Guillaumet, and Scott C. Barras

Winter Space Use of Coyotes in High-Elevation Environments: Behavioral Adaptations to Deep-Snow Landscapes, Jennifer L.B. Dowd, Eric M. Gese, and Lise M. Aubry

Interactions Between Wildlife and Civil Aircraft in Mississippi, Kelsey M. Drey, James A. Martin, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and Bradley F. Blackwell

Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) Dispersal by European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), Ryan J. Edwards, Larry C. Clark, and K. George Beck

A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of Breath Analysis to Differentiate Healthy Cattle from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis, Christine K. Ellis, Randal S. Stahl, Pauline Nol, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Matthew McCollum, and M. D. Salman

Bat Rabies in Guatemala, James E. Ellison, Amy T. Gilbert, Sergio Recuenco, David Moran, Danilo A. Alvarez, Natalia Kuzmina, Daniel L. Garcia, Leonard F. Peruski, Mary T. Mendonca, Kim A. Lindblade, and Charles E. Rupprecht

Weighing empirical and hypothetical evidence for assessing potential invasive species range limits: a review of the case of Burmese pythons in the USA, Richard Engeman, Michael L. Avery, and Elliot Jacobson

Weighing empirical and hypothetical evidence for assessing potential invasive species range limits: a review of the case of Burmese pythons in the USA, Richard Engeman, Michael L. Avery, and Elliot Jacobson

Benefits to Rare Plants and Highway Safety from Annual Population Reductions of a “Native Invader,” White-Tailed Deer, in a Chicago-Area Woodland, Richard Engeman, Travis Guerrant, Glen Dunn, Scott F. Beckerman, and Chris Anchor

Impacts from Control Operations on a Recreationally Hunted Feral Swine Population at a Large Military Installation in Florida, Richard Engeman, Troy Hershberger, Steve Orzell, Rodney Felix, Gary Killian, John Woolard, Jon Cornman, David Romano, Chet Huddleston, Pat Zimmerman, Chris Barre, Eric Tillman, and Michael Avery

Anthropogenic Conditioning of Gray Jays to a Nutritious, Seasonal Aquatic Food Source, R. M. Engeman and C. J. Wiloth

Fine-scale, spatial and temporal assessment methods for feral swine disturbances to sensitive plant communities in south-central Florida, Rodney K. Felix Jr., Steve L. Orzell, Eric A. Tillman, Richard M. Engeman, and Michael L. Avery

Influenza A Subtype H3 Viruses in Feral Swine, United States, 2011–2012, Zhixin Feng, John A. Baroch, Li-Ping Long, Yifei Xu, Frederick L. Cunningham, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, Brandon S. Schmidt, Andrew S. Bowman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Does Habitat Heterogeneity in a Multi-Use Landscape Influence Survival Rates and Density of a Native Mesocarnivore?, Eric M. Gese and Craig M. Thompson

Determination of residue levels of alphachloralose in duck tissues, David A. Goldade, Randal S. Stahl, and John J. Johnston

Crossing the Interspecies Barrier: Opening the Door to Zoonotic Pathogens, Christian Gortazar, Leslie A. Reperant, Thijs Kuiken, Jose de la Fuente, Mariana Boadella, Beatriz Martinez-Lopez, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Agusitn Estrada-Pena, Christian Drosten, Graham Medley, Richard Ostfeld, Townsend Peterson, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Christian Menge, Marc Artois, Constance Schultsz, Richard Delahay, Jordi Sierra-Cobo, Robert Poulin, Frederic Keck, Alonso A. Aguirre, Heikki Henttonen, Andrew P. Dobson, Susan Kutz, Juan Lubroth, and Atle Mysterud

The Cumulative Effects of Management on the Population Dynamics of the Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus in the Great Lakes, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S. Dorr, Guiming Wang, and Terry J. Doyle

Genetic analysis of a Bison bison herd derived from the Yellowstone National Park population, Julia A. Herman, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Natalie D. Halbert, Jack C. Rhyan, and M. D. Salman

Surveillance of feral swine for Trichinella spp. and Toxoplasmagondii in the USA and host-related factors associatedwith infection, D. E. Hill, J. P. Dubey, J. A. Baroch, S. R. Swafford, V. F. Fournet, D. Hawkins-Cooper, D. G. Pyburn, B. S. Schmit, H. R. Gamble, K. Pedersen, L. R. Ferreira, S. K. Verma, Y. Ying, O. C. H. Kwok, H. Feidas, and G. Theodoropoulos

The socioecology of Monk Parakeets: Insights into parrot social complexity, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Michael L. Avery, and Timonthy F. Wright

Environmental Contaminant Concentrations in Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) Muscle: Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Human Consumers, Katherine Horak, Richard Chipman, Lisa Murphy, and John Johnston

IMPROVED SATELLITE TRANSMITTER HARNESS ATTACHMENT TECHNIQUE, John S. Humphrey and Michael L. Avery

Evaluating the Effect of Short-Term Capture and Handling on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolite Levels in Mourning Doves, D. S. Jachowski, T. W. Wong, B. E. Washburn, J. H. Schulz, and J. J. Millspaugh

Evaluation of Techniques to Reduce Deer and Elk Damage to Agricultural Crops, Heather E. Johnson, Justin W. Fischer, Matthew Hammond, Patricia D. Dorsey, W. David Walter, Charles Anderson, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Immunization Alters Body Odor, Bruce A. Kimball, Maryanne Opiekun, Kunio Yamazaki, and Gary K. Beauchamp

A Conceptual Model for the Impact of Climate Change on Fox Rabies in Alaska, 1980–2010, B. I. Kim, J. D. Blanton, A. Gilbert, L. Castrodale, K. Hueffer, D. Slate, and C. E. Rupprecht

Coqui frog populations are negatively affected by canopy opening but not detritus deposition following an experimental hurricane in a tropical rainforest, Paul D. Klawinski, Ben Dalton, and Aaron B. Shiels

Efficacy and Health Effects of a Wildlife Immunocontraceptive Vaccine on Fox Squirrels, Sara K. Krause, Douglas A. Kelt, James P. Gionfriddo, and Dirk H. Van Vuren

Regulation of tree squirrel populations with immunocontraception: a fox squirrel example, Sara K. Krause, Douglas A. Kelt, Dirk H. Van Vuren, and James P. Gionfriddo

Evolution of Puma Lentivirus in Bobcats (Lynx rufus) and Mountain Lions (Puma concolor) in North America, Justin S. Lee, Sarah N. Bevins, Laurel E. K. Serleys, Winston Vickers, Ken A. Logan, Mat Aldredge, Erin E. Boydston, Lisa M. Lyren, Roy McBride, Melody Roelke-Parker, Jill Pecon-Slattery, Jennifer L. Troyer, Seth P. Riley, Walter M. Boyce, Kevin R. Crooks, and Sue VandeWoude

Modeling black bear population dynamics in a human-dominated stochastic environment, D. L. Lewis, S. W. Breck, K. R. Wilson, and C. T. Webb

THE INFLUENCE OF BREEDING EXPERIENCE ON NEST SUCCESS IN RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD, George M. Linz, Richard S. Sawin, and Mark W. Lutman

The evolution of self-control, Evan L. MacLean, Brian Hare, Charles L. Nunn, Elsa Addessi, Federica Amici, Rindy C. Anderson, Filippo Aureli, Joseph M. Baker, Amanda E. Bania, Allison M. Barnard, Neeltje J. Boogert, Elizabeth M. Brannon, Emily E. Bray, Joel Bray, Lauren J. N. Brent, Judith M. Burkart, Josep Call, Jessica F. Cantlon, Lucy G. Cheke, Nicola S. Clayton, Mikel M. Delgado, Louis J. DiVindenti, Kazuo Fujita, Esther Herrmann, Chihiro Hiramatsu, Lucia F. Jacobs, Kerry E. Jordan, Jennifer R. Laude, Kristin L. Leimgruber, Emily J. E. Messer, Antonio C. de A. Moura, Ljerka Ostojic, Alejandra Picard, Michael L. Platt, Joshua M. Plotnik, Friederike Range, Simon M. Reader, Rachna B. Reddy, Aaron A. Sandel, Laurie R. Santos, Katrin Schumann, Amanda M. Seed, Kendra B. Sewall, Rachael C. Shaw, Katie E. Slocombre, Yanjie Su, Ayaka Takimoto, Jingzhi Tan, Ruoting Tao, Carel P. van Schaik, Zsofia Viranyi, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Jordan C. Wade, Arii Watanabe, Janes Widness, Julie K. Young, Thomas R. Zentall, and Yini Zhao

Memory-Based Quantity Discrimination in Coyotes (Canis latrans), Salif Mahamane, Kevin L. Grunig, Joseph Baker, Julie K. Young, and Kerry E. Jordan

THE SPRING MIGRATION OF ADULT NORTH AMERICAN OSPREYS, Mark S. Martell, Richard O. Bierregaard Jr., Brian E. Washburn, John E. Elliott, Charles J. Henry, Robert S. Kennedy, and Iain MacLeod

Mitochondrial Diversity Supports Multiple Origins for Invasive Pigs, Blake E. McCann, Mathew J. Malek, Robert A. Newman, Brandon S. Schmit, Seth R. Swafford, Richard A. Sweitzer, and Rebecca B. Simmons

Movement characteristics of American beavers (Castor canadensis), Lance F. McClintic, Guiming Wang, Jimmy D. Taylor, and Jeanne C. Jones

Effects of spatiotemporal resource heterogeneity on home range size of American beaver, L. F. McClintic, J. D. Taylor, J. C. Jones, R. D. Singleton, and G. Wang

Production of Hybrids Between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes, L. David Mech, Bruce W. Christensen, Cheryl S. Asa, Margaret Callahan, and Julie K. Young

Efficacy of Ropel® as a coyote repellent, Elizabeth A. Miller, Julie K. Young, Scott Stelting, and Bruce A. Kimball

First Reports of Pseudorabies and Winter Ticks (Dermacentor albipictus) Associated with an Emerging Feral Swine (Sus scrofa) Population in New Hampshire, Anthony R. Musante, Kerri Pedersen, and Parker Hall

Morphologic and Molecular Identifications of Digenetic Trematodes in Double-Crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from the Mississippi Delta, USA, Mary O'Hear, Linda Pote, Marlena Yost, Cynthia Doffitt, Tommy King, and Carla Panuska

The Scent of Disease: Human Body Odor Contains an Early Chemosensory Cue of Sickness, Mats J. Olsson, Johan N. Lundstrom, Bruce A. Kimball, Amy R. Gordon, Bianka Karshikoff, Nishteman Hosseini, Kimmo Sorjonen, Caroline Olgart Hoglund, Carmen Solares, Anne Soop, John Axelsson, and Mats Lekander

Testing a molasses-based bait for oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) against Mycobacterium bovis, M. V. Palmer, M. R. Stafne, W. R. Waters, T. C. Thacker, and G. E. Phillips

Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype 1 (Newcastle Disease Virus), Avian Influenza Virus, and Salmonella spp. in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes Region and Atlantic Coast of the United States, Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Dustin M. Arsnoe, Claudio L. Afonso, Sarah N. Bevins, Patti J. Miller, Adam R. Randall, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Short Report: Antibody Prevalence of Select Arboviruses in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes Region and Atlantic Coast of the United States, Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Dustin M. Arsnoe, Sarah N. Bevins, Eryu Wang, Scott C. Weaver, Randall M. Mickley, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Identification of Brucella suis from Feral Swine in Selected States in the USA, Kerri Pedersen, Christine R. Quance, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Antionette J. Piaggio, Sarah N. Bevins, Samuel M. Goldstein, Wesson D. Gaston, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Widespread detection of antibodies to Leptospira in feral swine in the United States, K. Pedersen, K. L. Pabilonia, T. D. Anderson, S. N. Bevins, C. R. Hicks, J. M. Kloft, and T. J. Deliberto

Using Quantitative Disease Dynamics as a Tool for Guiding Response to Avian Influenza in Poultry in the United States of America, K. M. Pepin, E. Spackman, J. D. Brown, K. L. Pabilonia, L. P. Garber, J. T. Weaver, D. A. Kennedy, K. A. Patyk, K. P. Huyvaert, R. S. Miller, A. B. Franklin, K. Pedersen, T. L. Bogich, P. Rohani, S. A. Shriner, C. T. Webb, and S. Riley

Detecting an Elusive Invasive Species: A Diagnostic PCR to Detect Burmese Python in Florida Waters and an Assessment of Persistence of Environmental DNA, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Richard M. Engeman, Matthew W. Hopken, John S. Humphrey, Kandy L. Keacher, William E. Bruce, and Michael L. Avery

Potential Citric Acid Exposure and Toxicity to Hawaiian Hoary Bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) Associated with Eleutherodactylus Frog Control, William C. Pitt, Gary W. Witmer, Susan M. Jojola, and Hans Sin

Influence of habitat structure and food on patch choice ofcaptive coyotes, Sharon A. Poessel, Eric M. Gese, and Julie K. Young

Toxicokinetics and Coagulopathy Threshold of the Rodenticide Diphacinone in Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio), Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Rebecca S. Lazarus, David A. Goldade, and John J. Johnston

Ecological Routes of Avian Influenza Virus Transmission to a Common Mesopredator: An Experimental Evaluation of Alternatives, J. Jeffrey Root, Kevin T. Bentler, Susan A. Shriner, Nicole L. Mooers, Kaci K. VanDalen, Heather J. Sullivan, and Alan B. Franklin

Extended Viral Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus by Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis), J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Kevin T. Bentler, Thomas Gidlewski, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, Terry R. Spraker, Kaci K. VanDalen, Heather J. Sullivan, and Alan B. Franklin

Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in a Common Synanthropic Mammal – The Cottontail Rabbit, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Kevin T. Bentler, Thomas Gidlewski, Nicole L. Mooers, Terry R. Spraker, Kaci K. VanDalen, Heather J. Sullivan, and Alan B. Franklin

Behavioral Traits and Airport Type Affect Mammal Incidents with U.S. Civil Aircraft, Kristin B. Schwarz, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin, Travis L. DeVault, and Guiming Wang

Diffusion of influenza viruses among migratory birds with a focus on the Southwest United States, Matthew Scotch, Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Kristy L. Pabilonia, Theodore Anderson, John Baroch, Dennis Kohler, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Using sterilization to change predation rates of wild coyotes:A test case involving pronghorn fawns, Renee G. Seidler, Eric M. Gese, and Mary M. Conner

Parenteral administration of GnRH constructs and adjuvants: Immuneresponses and effects on reproductive tissues of male mice, Sameer Sharma, Ian McDonald, Lowell Martin, and Lyn A. Hinds

Understory fern community structure, growth and spore production responses to a large-scale hurricane experiment in a Puerto Rico rainforest, Joanne M. Sharpe and Aaron B. Shiels

Efficacy of Plastic Mesh Tubes in Reducing Herbivory Damage by the Invasive Nutria (Myocastor coypus) in an Urban Restoration Site, Trevor R. Sheffels, Mark D. Sytsma, Jacoby Carter, and Jimmy D. Taylor

Trait-based plant mortality and preference for native versus non-native seedlings by invasive slug and snail herbivores in Hawaii, Aaron B. Shiels, Martin K. Ennis, and Laura Shiels

Understanding the key mechanisms of tropical forest responses to canopy loss and biomass deposition from experimental hurricane effects, Aaron B. Shiels and Grizelle Gonzalez

Responses to canopy loss and debris deposition in a tropical forest ecosystem: Synthesis from an experimental manipulation simulating effects of hurricane disturbance, Aaron B. Shiels, Grizelle González, and Michael R. Willig